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Division of Human Types by Two—Bimala Charan Law

Designation of Human Types

2. Division of Human Types by Two

1. What sort of person is angry? What then is anger?

That which is anger, being angry, and the state of being angry, hatred, hating, hatefulness, malice, the act of being malicious, maliciousness, hostility, enmity, rudeness, abruptness, resentment of heart—this is called anger. He who has not got rid of this anger is said to be an angry person.

What sort of person is said to be vengeful? What then is vengeance?

First (comes) anger, after that (comes) vengeance. That which is vengeance as this is, the act of revenging and the state of being vengeful, the fixing, setting, establishing, grounding and following up, the violent act of anger is called vengeance. He whose vengeance remains unremoved is said to be vengeful.

2. What sort of person is a slanderer? What then is slandering?

That which is slander, that which is slandering, and that which is calumny. This is said to be slander. He in whom this slander remains unremoved is said to be a slanderer.

What sort of person is quarrelsome? What then is quarrelling?

That which is a quarrel, that which is quarrelling, and that which is quarrelsomeness, the way of quarrel, the point of dispute, the coming to fight, unrelenting—this is called quarrelling. A person in whom such quarrelling remains unremoved is said to be a quarrelsome person.

3. What sort of person is envious? What then is envy?

That which is envying, enviousness, jealousy, regarding with jealousy, the state of being jealous with regard to the gain, honour, respect, reverence, salutation and worship paid to others—this is said to be envy. A person in whom this envy is unremoved is said to be envious.

What sort of person is avaricious? What is meant by avarice?

There are five forms of avarice—avarice with regard to residence, descent, gain, beauty, and merit (dhamma), that which is avarice of this nature, harbouring avarice, avariciousness, inordinate longing, covetousness, presenting a harsh appearance, unrestraint of mind—this is said to be avarice. The person in whom this avarice remains unremoved is said to be an avaricious person.

4. What sort of person is crafty? What is meant by craftiness?

Here a person becomes crafty and cunning. That which is craft, craftiness, state of being crafty, hardness, toughness, counterfeit, sham. The person in whom this craftiness remains unremoved is said to be a crafty person.

What sort of person is deceitful? What is deception in that case?

Here someone misbehaves in body, word, and thought, and with a view to hide that, entertains a sinful desire, desires, resolves, says and acts thus: Let none know me! That which is this deception, deceitfulness, hiding, cheating, guile, guilefulness, avoiding, closing up, closing up completely, screening, screening perfectly, unrevealing, undisclosing, and suppressing particularly—this sinful act is called deception.

The person in whom this deception is not destroyed is said to be a deceitful person.

5. What sort of person is shameless? What then is shamelessness?

That which is the not being ashamed where one should be ashamed, the not being ashamed of acquiring sinful and unmoral qualities—this is said to be shamelessness. A person who is possessed of this shamelessness is said to be a shameless person.

What sort of person is impudent? What then is impudence?

Not repenting where one ought to, not repenting of the acquiring sinful and immoral qualities—this is said to be impudence. A person who is possessed of impudence as this is, is said to be impudent.

6. What sort of person is disobedient? What then is disobedience?

Disobedience, want of obedience, absence of obedience, the taking up of a hostile attitude, persisting in antagonism, want of respect, disrespect, irreverence, unruliness (insubordination) when the matter of the observance of duties is spoken of—this is said to be disobedience. One who is possessed of such disobedience is said to be a disobedient person.

What sort of person is said to be the associate of the wicked? What then is association with the wicked?

Serving, following, attending on, devotion to, honouring, reverence, veneration for, leaning towards those men who are faithless, wicked, uneducated, avaricious and foolish—this is said to be association with the wicked. One who has such a sinful association is said to be an associate of the wicked.

7. What sort of person is unguarded as to the “sense-doors”? What then is unguardedness as to the “sense-doors”?

Here a person sees an object with the eye and is enamoured of its form and beauty. And whereas if he lives with his sense of sight unrestrained, the sinful and wicked mental conditions—namely, covetousness and dejection—will flow in, he does not strive to restrain, he does not guard the sense of sight, nor does he get control over the faculty of sight. (In the same way) he hears a sound with his ears … smells an odour with the nose, tastes with the tongue, feels a tangible thing with the body … knows a mental state with the mind … and is enamoured of its form and beauty; whereas if he lives unrestrained as to the faculty of mind, the sinful and wicked mental conditions—viz., covetousness and dejection— will flow in, he does not strive to restrain, nor does he guard the faculty of mind, nor does he get control over the faculty of mind. That which is not guarding, not restraining, not protecting, and not controlling these six faculties—this is said to be unguarding as to the “sense-doors”. One who has such unguarding of sense-doors is said to be unguarded as to “sense-doors”.

What sort of person is immoderate as to food? What then is immoderation in food?

Here somebody thoughtlessly and unwisely takes food for the sake of amusement, pride, decoration, ornamentation, insatiability, immoderation, and thoughtlessness as to food—this is said to be immoderation as to food. A person having this immoderation as to food is said to be immoderate as to food.

8. What sort of person is forgetful? What then is forgetfulness?

That which is forgetfulness, failing of memory, non-remembrance, non-recollection, unretentiveness, inattention, oblivion—this is said to be forgetfulness. A person possessed of such forgetfulness is said to be forgetful.

What sort of person is unmindful? What then is unmindfulness?

That which is want of knowledge, want of vision, want of comprehension, want of understanding, want of perfect knowledge, want of penetration, the not grasping, not diving deep, not surveying, not reflecting, absence of work of reflection, dullness, foolishness, want of intelligence, delusion, infatuation, bewilderment, ignorance, the flood of ignorance, the bond of ignorance, the propensity of ignorance, the accession of ignorance, the barrier of ignorance, dullness, a root of evil. A person who is possessed of such unmindfulness is said to be unmindful.

9. What sort of person is an infringer of moral law? What then is infringement of moral law?

Transgression with regard to the body, with regard to speech, and with regard to both—this is said to be infringement of moral law. Immorality of every description is an infringement of moral law. A person who is possessed of such an infringement as this, is said to be an infringer of moral law.

What sort of person is an upholder of (dangerous) views? What then is upholding of (dangerous) views?

“There is no (merit in) charity, sacrificial rites and sacrificial offerings, and there is no fruit nor result of good or of bad deeds. There is neither the present nor a future world. There is neither mother nor father, nor beings who are born without them. There are no recluses or Brahmins in this world who have attained peace of mind and are acting their best, who having by their own effort known and seen this world and the next make known to other”: views like this, the way of opinion, the wilderness of opinion, this disorder of heresy, this fluttering of opinion, this fetter of opinion, this seizing and grasping, the devotion to it, its conduct, this bad path, this wrong way, this falsehood, the “landing-place”, this holding the contrary aim—all this is said to be dangerous views. Wrong opinion of every description is known as dangerous views. A person who is taken by a dangerous view such as this, is said to be an upholder of dangerous views.

10. What sort of person is with internal fetters?

A person in whom the five fetters tying him down to the lower worlds remain unremoved is said to be a person with internal fetters.

What sort of person is with external fetters?

A person in whom the five fetters restraining him to the upper worlds remain unremoved is said to be one with external fetters.

11. What sort of person is without anger? What then is the word “anger”?

That which is wrath, being wrathful, etc. (II. 1 ) of mind:—this is said to be anger. A person in whom such anger has been put away is said to be a person without anger.

What sort of person is unrevengeful? What then is revenge?

First (comes) anger, etc. (II. 1), of anger:—this is said to be revenge. The person in whom revenge as this is has been put away is said to be an unrevengeful person.

12. What sort of person is not a slanderer? What then is “slander”?

That which is slander, that which is practising slander, that which is the state of being a slanderer, that which is hypocrisy, work of hypocrisy—this is said to be slander. A person in whom such slander is put away is said to be not a slanderer.

What sort of person is not quarrelsome? What then is quarrelling?

That which is quarrelling …, etc. (II. 1), quarrelling. A person in whom quarrelling like this is put away is said to be not quarrelsome.

13. What sort of person is unenvious? What then is envy?

That which is envying, the state of being envious, that which is jealousy, the act of jealousy and the state of being jealous about the gain, honour, respect, reverence, salutation, and worship paid to others. A person in whom such envy is put away is said to be unenvious.

What sort of person is unavaricious? What then is avarice?

There are five forms of avarice: avarice with regard to residence, descent, gain, beauty, and merit (dhamma), that which is avarice of this nature, harbouring avarice, avariciousness, inordinate longing, covetousness, presenting a harsh appearance, unrestraint of mind—this is said to be avarice. The person in whom such an avarice has been put away is said to be an unavaricious person.

14. What sort of person is one who is not crafty? What then is craftiness?

Here a person becomes crafty and cunning—that which is craft, craftiness, state of being crafty, hardness, toughness, counterfeit, sham. The person in whom such craftiness has been put away is said to be one not crafty.

What sort of person is undeceiving? What then is deception?

Here some person misbehaves in body, word, and thought, and with a view to hide that entertains a sinful desire, desires, resolves, says and acts thus: Let none know me! That which is this deception, deceitfulness, hiding, cheating, guile, guilefulness, avoiding, closing up, closing up completely, screening, screening perfectly, unrevealing, undisclosing, and suppressing particularly—this sinful act is called deception. The person in whom this deception has been put away is said to be undeceiving.

15. What sort of person is scrupulous? What then is scruple?

That which is being scrupulous where one should be, the being scrupulous as to doing a sinful and immoral act—this is said to be scruple. A person who is possessed of scruple like this is said to be scrupulous.

What sort of person is discreet? What then is discretion?

Being discreet where one ought to be, discretion as to doing a sinful and immoral act—this is said to be discretion. A person who is possessed of discretion like this is said to be a discreet person.

16. What sort of person is obedient? What then is obedience?

Obedience, obeying, the habit of obeying, not taking up a hostile attitude, not persisting in antagonism, respecting, respect, reverence, subordination—this is said to be obedience when the observance of duties is spoken of. A person who is possessed of such obedience is said to be an obedient person.

What sort of person is the associate of the good? What then is association with the good?

Serving, respecting, revering, honouring, love, reverence, friendship for those people who are faithful, virtuous, learned, possessed of devotion and candour—this is said to be meant by association with the good. A person who has such an association with the good is said to be an associate of the good.

17. What sort of person is guarded as to the “sense-doors”? What then is guarding the “sense-doors”?

Here a certain person sees an object with the eye, but is not enamoured of its form and beauty. And whereas if he lives with his sense of sight unrestrained, the sinful and wicked mental conditions—viz., covetousness and dejection—will flow in, he strives after its restraint, he guards the sense of sight and exercises control over the faculty of sight; (in the same way) he hears a sound with his ears … smells an odour with his nose … tastes with his tongue … feels an external object with his body … apprehends a mental phenomenon with his mind, but is not enamoured of its form and beauty, whereas if he lives unrestrained as to the faculty of mind, the sinful and wicked mental conditions—viz., covetousness and dejection—will flow in, he strives after its restraint, guards the faculty of mind and exercises control over it. That which is guarding, restraining, protecting, and controlling of these six faculties—this is said to be guarding the “sense-doors”. One who has such a vigilance over the sense-doors is said to be guarded as to his “sense-doors”.

What sort of person is moderate as to food? What then is moderation in food?

Here somebody wisely thinking takes food not for the sake of amusement, not for pride, not for decoration, not for ornamentation, so far as it is necessary for the preservation and keeping up of the body and for the sake of relieving the distress of hunger, helping the cause of a holy life: “thus I shall put an end to my past feelings and shall not give occasion to new feelings; thus shall come to me sustenance, purity, and peaceful life”; that which is contentment, moderation, thoughtfulness as to food—this is said to be moderation in food. A person possessing such temperance is said to be moderate as to food.

18. What sort of person is alert? What then is mindfulness?

The mindfulness which is remembering, which is remembrance, recollection, retentiveness, non-forgetting, non-disorder of memory, mindfulness, a faculty called mindfulness, the power called mindfulness, and perfect mindfulness—this is said to be mindfulness. A person who possesses mindfulness like this is said to be an alert person.

What sort of person understands? What is understanding?

That which is knowledge, knowing, discrimination, investigation of the truth, observing, remarking, and discernment, erudition, expertness, adroitness, superior thinking, examination, reason, intellect that leads, introspection, mindfulness, goad, insight, the faculty of insight, the power of insight, weapon of insight, palace of insight, light of insight, brightness of insight, splendour of insight, jewel of insight, disillusionment, investigation into the truth, perfect vision—this is said to be mindfulness. A person who is possessed of such understanding understands.

19. What sort of person is an observer of moral law? What then is observance of moral law?

Non-transgression with regard to body and to speech and with regard to both—this is said to be observance of moral law; all restraints under moral law are its observance. Any one equipped with this observance of moral law is said to be the observer of moral law.

What sort of person is the upholder of right view? What is then the upholding of right view?

“There is (merit in) charity, in sacrificial rites, and sacrificial offerings. There is fruit, and there is result of good and bad deeds done. There exists this world, there is also the next world, there is mother and there is father and there are those beings who are born without their union. There are true recluses and brahmins in this world who have attained peace of mind and are acting their best, and who, having personally known and realised what this world is as well as the next, make known to others”—such knowledge and such knowing, etc. (11, 18) … absence of ignorance, discernment of the truth, right vision—this is said to be upholding of right views. All right views are classed under right views. 'A person who is endowed with this upholding of right views is said to be the upholder of right views.

20. Which two persons are rare in this world?

He who does good first and he who recognises it:—these two persons are rare in this world.

21. Which two persons are hard to satisfy?

He who stores up whatever he gets and he who gives away whatever he gets:—these two persons are hard to satisfy.

22. Which two persons are easily satisfied?

He who does not store up whatever he gets and he who does not give away whatever he gets—these two persons are easily satisfied.

23. Of which two persons do the sins (āsava) increase?

He who doubts where he should not and he who does not disbelieve where he ought t o :—of these two persons the sins go on increasing.

24. Of which two persons do the sins not increase?

He who does not doubt where it is not proper to doubt and he who doubts where he ought to do so:—of these two persons the sins do not increase.

25. What sort of person is one having low inclination?

Here is a person who, himself morally wicked and evil by nature, serves, follows, and worships another person who is also wicked and of evil disposition:—this is said to be a person having low inclination.

26. What sort of person is one having good inclination?

Here a certain person who, morally good and of virtuous habits, serves, follows, and reveres another person of the same nature:—he is said to be a person having good inclination.

27. What sort of person is the gratified?

Those who are enlightened for themselves and those of the disciples of the Tathāgata who are Arahants are the gratified. The perfectly Enlightened One is both gratified and a gratifier.

Here ends the specification of grouping by Two.