Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Mahāvagga)

3. Rains (Vassa)

Allowance to enter the rains

At one time the awakened one, the Lord was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Now at that time (the use of) a rains-residence for monks had not come to be laid down by the Lord. So these monks walked on tour during the cold weather and the hot weather and the rains.

People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, walk on tour during the cold weather and the hot weather and the rains, trampling down the crops and grasses, injuring life that is one-facultied and bringing many small creatures to destruction? Shall it be that those members of other sects, whose rules are badly kept, cling to and prepare a rains-residence, shall it be that these birds, having made their nests in the tree-tops, cling to and prepare a rains-residence, while these recluses, sons of the Sakyans walk on a tour during the cold weather and the hot weather and the rains, trampling down the crops and grasses, injuring life that is one-facultied and bringing many small creatures to destruction?”

Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow you, monks, to enter upon the rains.

Then it occurred to these monks: “Now, when should the rains be entered upon?” They told this matter to the Lord.

He said: “I allow you, monks, to enter upon the rains in the rainy season.

Then it occurred to these monks: “Now, how many (periods) are there for beginning the rains?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, there are these two (periods) for beginning the rains: the earlier and the later. The earlier may be entered upon the day after (the full moon of) Āsāḷhī, the later may be entered upon a month after (the full moon of) Āsāḷhī. These, monks, are the two (periods) for beginning the rains.”

On tour in the rains, etc.

Now at that time the group of six monks, having entered upon the rains, walked on tour during the rains. People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, walk on tour during the cold weather and the hot weather and the rains, trampling down … as in Kd.3.1.2 … bringing many small creatures to destruction?’

Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks, having entered upon the rains, walk on tour during the rains?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, having entered upon the rains, but not having kept either the first three months or the last three months, one should not set out on tour. Whoever should (thus) set out, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks did not want to enter upon the rains. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, one should not not enter upon the rains. Whoever should not enter upon (them), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Now at that time the group of six monks, on a day for beginning the rains, not desiring to enter upon the rains, intentionally passed a residence by. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, on a day for beginning the rains, a residence should not be intentionally passed by one who does not desire to enter upon the rains. Whoever should pass one by, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Allowance for seven days business

Now at that time King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha, desiring to postpone the rains, sent a messenger to the monks, saying: “What if the masters could enter upon the rains at the next full-moon day?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to obey kings.

Then the Lord, having stayed at Rājagaha for as long as he found suiting, set out on tour for Sāvatthī. Walking on tour, in due course he arrived at Sāvatthī. Then the Lord stayed there in Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time in the Kosala country a lay-follower, Udena, had had a dwelling-place built for an Order. He sent a messenger to monks, saying: “Let the revered sirs come; I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks.”

Monks spoke thus: “It is laid down by the Lord, sir, that one should not set out on tour, having entered upon the rains and not having kept the first three months or the last three months. Let Udena, the lay-follower, wait until the monks have kept the rains; when they have finished the rains they will go. But if there is something urgent to be done, let him establish the dwelling-place in the presence of resident monks who are already there.”

The lay-follower, Udena, … spread it about, saying: “How can these revered sirs, when sent for by me, not come, for I am a benefactor, a builder, a supporter of the Order?” Monks heard the lay-follower, Udena, as he … spread it about Then these monks told this matter to the Lord.

Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow you, monks, to go if you are sent for by seven (classes of people), and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for: by a monk, a nun, a probationer, a novice, a woman novice, a lay-follower, a woman lay-follower. I allow you, monks, to go if you are sent for by these (seven classes of people) and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place for an Order comes to have been built by a lay-follower. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks you should go, monks’, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a curved house for an Order comes to have been built by a lay-follower … a long house … a mansion … a cave … a cell … a porch … an attendance hall … a fire-hall … a hut for what is allowable … a privy … a place for pacing up and down in … a hall in the place for pacing up and down in … a well … a hall at the well … a bathroom … a hall in the bathroom … a lotus pond … a shed … a monastery … a site for a monastery comes to have been built by a lay-follower. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying:

‘Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks’, you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place … a curved house … a long house … a site for a monastery = Kd.3.5.6 … for several monks, … for one monk comes to have been built by a lay-follower … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place … a site for a monastery for an Order of nuns, … for several nuns … for one nun … for several probationers … for one probationer … for several novices … for one novice … for several women novices … for one woman novice comes to have been built by a lay-follower. If he should send a messenger to monks saying: ‘Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling comes to have been built by a lay-follower for himself … a sleeping-room … a stable … a watch-tower … a quadrangular building … a shop … a hall for a shop … a long house … a mansion … a cave … a cell … a porch … an attend-ance ball … a fire hall … a kitchen … a privy … a place for pacing up and down in … a hall in the place for pacing up and down in … a well … a hall at the well … a bathroom … a hall in the bathroom … a lotus pond … a shed … a park … a site for a park comes to have been built by a lay-follower for himself, or there comes to be his son’s marriage, or there comes to be his daughter’s marriage, or he becomes ill, or he speaks a well known discourse. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the revered sirs come, they will master this discourse before this discourse falls into oblivion’; or if he has some business, something to be done, and should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks’, you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place for an Order comes to have been built by a woman lay-follower. If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks’, you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a curved house for an Order comes to have been built by a woman lay-follower … = Kd.3.5.6 … a site for a monastery comes to have been built for an Order by a woman lay-follower. If she should send a messenger … = Kd.3.5.10 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place … a site for a monastery for several monks … for one monk … for an Order of nuns … for several nuns … for one nun … for several probationers … for one probationer … for several novices … for one novice … for several women novices … for one woman novice comes to have been built by a woman lay-follower. If she should send a messenger … = Kd.3.5.8 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place comes to have been built by a woman lay-follower for herself … = Kd.3.5.9 … or if she comes to be ill, or if she speaks a well known discourse. If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the masters come, and they will master this discourse before this discourse falls into oblivion or if she has some business, something to be done, and should send a messenger to monks, saying: “Let the masters come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place … = Kd.3.5.8 … a site for a monastery for an Order … for several monks, … for one monk … for an Order of nuns … for several nuns … for one nun … for several probationers … for one probationer … for several novices … for one novice … for several women novices … for one woman novice … for him- (her-) self is built by a monk … a nun … a probationer … a novice … a woman novice. If he (she) should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Let the revered sirs (masters) come. I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the monks you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days.”

Allowance for five even when not sent for

Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill. He sent a messenger to monks, saying: “I, now, am ill, let monks come, I want monks to come”. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, to five (classes of people): to a monk, a nun, a probationer, a novice, a woman novice. I allow you, monks, to go to these five (classes of people) even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I, now, am ill, let monks come, I want monks to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will look about for a meal for the invalid, or I will look about for a meal for the one who is tending the invalid, or I will look about for medicine for the invalid, or I will ask (after) him, or I will tend him’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where dissatisfaction comes to have arisen in a monk. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Dissatisfaction has arisen in me, let monks come, I want monks to come you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and it the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will allay his dissatisfaction or get (someone) to allay it, or I will give him a talk on dhamma’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where remorse comes to have arisen in a monk. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Remorse has arisen in me … I want monks to come’, you should go, monks, … if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will dispel his remorse or get (someone) to dispel it, or I will give him a talk on dhamma.’ The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a monk. If he should send … if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will dissuade him from the wrong view or get (someone) to dissuade him, or I will give him a talk on dhamma’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have committed an offence against an important rule and to deserve probation. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I have committed an offence against an important rule, I deserve probation, let monks come, I want monks to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for placing (him) on probation, or I will make a proclamation, or I will become one who completes a group’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves to be sent back to the beginning. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I deserve to be sent back to the beginning, let monks come, I want monks to come you should go monks, even if not sent for, … if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for sending (him) back to the beginning, or I will make a proclamation, or I will become one who completes a group’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves mānatta (discipline). If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I desire mānatta (discipline), let monks come, I want monks to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for inflicting mānatta discipline (on him), or I will make a proclamation, or I will become one who completes a group’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves rehabilitation. If he should send a messenger … thinking: ‘I will make an effort for (his) rehabilitation, or I will make a proclamation, or I will become one who completes a group’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where an Order becomes desirous of carrying out a (formal) act against a monk—either one of censure or one of guidance or one of banishment or one of reconciliation or one of suspension. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘The Order desires to carry out a (formal) act against me, let monks come, I want monks to come’, you should go … if the return can be made in seven days, thinking: ‘How then may the Order not carry out a (formal) act or may change it to something lighter?’ The return should be made in seven days.

“Or a (formal) act comes to be carried out against him by the Order—either one of censure … or one of suspension. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘The Order carried out a (formal) act against me … I want monks to come’, you should go monks, … thinking: ‘How then may he conduct himself properly, be subdued, mend his ways, (so that) the Order can revoke that (formal) act?’ The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a nun comes to be ill … = Kd.3.6.2

… where dissatisfaction comes to have arisen in a nun … = Kd.3.6.3

… where remorse comes to have arisen in a nun … = Kd.3.6.4

… where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a nun … = Kd.3.6.5

… where a nun comes to have committed an offence against an important rule and to deserve mānatta (discipline). If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I have ommitted an offence against an important rule and deserve mānatta (discipline), let the masters come, I want the masters to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the lore if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for inflicting mānatta discipline) on her.’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a nun deserves to be sent back to the beginning. If she should send a messenger … = Kd.3.6.7 … thinking: ‘I will make an effort for sending (her) back to the beginning’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a nun deserves rehabilitation = Kd.3.6.9 … thinking: ‘I will make an effort for (her) rehabilitation’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where an Order becomes desirous of carrying out a (formal) act against a nun, either one of censure … or one of suspension … = Kd.3.6.10 … The return should be made in seven days.

“Or a (formal) act comes to be carried out against her by an Order—either one of censure … or one of suspension … = Kd.3.6.11 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a probationer comes to be ill … cf. Kd.3.6.2 … in seven days.

“This is a case, monks where dissatisfaction comes to have arisen in a probationer … where remorse comes to have arisen in a probationer … where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a probationer … where a probationer’s training comes to be interrupted. If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘My training is interrupted, let the masters come, I want the masters to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for her to undertake the training’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a probationer becomes desirous of being ordained. If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I am desirous of being ordained … I want the masters to come’, you should go, monks, … thinking: ‘Either I will make an effort for her ordination or I will make a proclamation or I will become one who completes a group’. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a novice becomes ill … Kd.3.6.2 … The return should be made in seven days.

“… where dissatisfaction … where remorse … where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a novice … where a novice becomes desirous of asking about his year’s standing.

If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘I am desirous of asking about my year’s standing … I want monks to come’, you should go … thinking: ‘I will ask or I will explain’. The return should be made in seven days.

“… where a novice becomes desirous of being ordained … as in Kd.3.6.22 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a woman novice comes to be ill … Kd.3.6.2 The return should be made in seven days.

“… where dissatisfaction … where remorse … where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a woman novice … where a woman novice becomes desirous of asking about her year’s standing … Kd.3.6.25 … The return should be made in seven days.

“… where a woman novice becomes desirous of undertaking the training. If she should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Now I am desirous of undertaking the training, let the masters come, I want the masters to come’, you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking: ‘I will make an effort for her to acquire the training’. The return should be made in seven days.”

Allowance for seven when sent for

Now at that time a certain monk’s mother became ill. She sent a messenger to her son, saying: “Now I am ill, let my son come, I want my son to come.” Then it occurred to that monk: “It is laid down by the Lord that, if the business can be done in seven days, one can go if sent for but not if not sent for to seven (classes of people); and, if the business can be done in seven days, to go even if not sent for, all the more if sent for to five (classes of people); and my own mother is ill, but she is not a lay-follower. Now what line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord.

He said: “I allow you, monks, to go even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, if the business can be done in seven days, to seven (classes of people): to a monk, a nun, a probationer, a novice, a woman novice, a mother, a father. I allow you, monks, to go even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, if the business can be done in seven days, to these seven (classes of people). The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk’s mother comes to be ill. If she should send a messenger to her son, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let my son come, I want my son to come’, you should go, monks, … = Kd.3.6.2 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk’s father comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to his son, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let my son come, I want my son to come’, you should go … = Kd.3.6.2 … The return should be made in seven days.

Allowance only when sent for

“This is a case, monks, where a monk’s brother comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to his brother, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let my brother come, I want my brother to come’, you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if not sent for, if the business can be done in seven days. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk’s sister comes to be ill. If she should send a messenger to her brother, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let my brother come, I want my brother to come’, you should go … = Kd.3.7.5 … The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk’s relative comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let the revered sir come, I want the revered sir to come’, you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if not sent for, if the business can be done in seven days. The return should be made in seven days.

“This is a case, monks, where a person living with monks comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: ‘Now I am ill, let monks come, I want monks to come’, you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if not sent for, if the business can be done in seven days. The return should be made in seven days.”


Now at that time an Order’s dwelling-place was falling to pieces. A certain lay-follower had the goods removed into the jungle. He sent a messenger to monks, saying: “If the revered sirs would fetch away these goods, I would give them back these goods.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go away on business connected with an Order. The return should be made in seven days.

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Rains-residence.

Portion on no offence for cutting short the rains when there is danger

Now at that time in the Kosala country monks who had entered upon the rains in a certain residence came to be molested by beasts of prey who seized them and attacked them. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains come to be molested by beasts of prey who seize them and attack them. This is indeed a danger, and you should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains come to be molested by creeping things which bite them and attack them. This is indeed … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where monks … are molested by thieves who rob them and thrash them. This is indeed … in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where monks … are molested by demons who take possession of them and sap their vitality. This is indeed … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where the village of monks who have entered upon the rains comes to be burnt by fire and the monks go short of almsfood. This is indeed a danger … in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where the lodgings of monks who have entered upon the rains come to be burnt by fire and the monks go short of lodgings. This is indeed … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where the village of monks who have entered upon the rains comes to be carried away by water and the monks go short of almsfood. This is indeed … in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where the lodgings of monks who have entered upon the rains come to be carried away by water and the monks go short of lodgings. This is indeed a danger, and you should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains.”


Now at that time the village of certain monks who had entered upon the rains in a certain residence was removed on account of thieves. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go to that village.” The village was split in two. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go where there are the more (people).” The majority came to be of little faith, not believing. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go to those who have faith and are believing.


Now at that time in the Kosala country monks who had entered upon the rains in a certain residence did not obtain a sufficiency, as much as they needed, of coarse or of sumptuous food. They told this matter to the Lord. He said “This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains do not obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, of coarse or of sumptuous food. This is indeed a danger, and they should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, of coarse or of sumptuous food, but they do not obtain beneficial foods. This is indeed a danger … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, of coarse or of sumptuous food, they obtain beneficial foods, but they do not obtain beneficial medicines. This is indeed a danger … the rains. This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, of coarse or of sumptuous food, they obtain beneficial foods, they obtain beneficial medicines, but they do not obtain a suitable attendant. This is indeed a danger … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a woman invites a monk who has entered upon the rains, saying: ‘Come, honoured sir, I will give you gold or I will give you gold ornaments or I will give you a field or I will give you a site or I will give you a bull or I will give you a cow or I will give you a slave or I will give you a slave woman or I will give you (my) daughter as wife or I will be your wife or I will lead another wife to you.’ If it then occurs to the monk: ‘The mind is called quickly-changing by the Lord, and this may be a danger to my Brahma-faring’, he should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a low class woman … a grown girl … a eunuch invites a monk who has entered upon the rains … where relations invite … kings … thieves … men of abandoned life invite a monk who has entered upon the rains, saying: ‘Come, honoured sir, we will give you gold … or we will give you a daughter as wife or we will lead another wife to you’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘The mind is called quickly-changing by the Lord …’ … There is no offence in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains sees a treasure without an owner. If then it occurs to the monk: ‘The mind is called quickly changing …’ … There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

Portion on no offence for cutting short the rains when there is schism in the Saṅgha

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains sees several monks striving for a schism in the Order. If then it occurs to the monk: ‘A schism in an Order is called serious by the Lord, do not let the Order be divided in my presence’, he should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that several monks are striving for a schism in the Order’. If then it occurs to that monk … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that several monks in a certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these monks are my friends. I should speak to them, saying: Indeed, your reverences, a schism in the Order is called serious by the Lord, please do not let a schism in the Order be promoted by the venerable ones and if he thinks: ‘They will do my bidding, they will attend, they will give ear he should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that several monks in a certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these monks are not friends of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they will speak to them, saying: Indeed, your reverences, a schism in the Order is called serious by the Lord …’ = Kd.3.11.6 … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that the Order in a certain residence is divided by several monks’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these monks are friends of mine. I should speak to them, saying: … = Kd.3.11.6 … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that an Order in a certain residence is divided by several monks’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these monks are not friends of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they will speak to them, saying: Indeed, your reverences, a schism in the Order is called serious by the Lord …’ = Kd.3.11.6 … There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that several nuns in a certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these nuns are friends of mine. I should speak to them, saying: Sisters, a schism in the Order is called serious by the Lord, please do not let a schism in the Order be promoted by the sisters’, and if he thinks: ‘They will do my bidding, they will attend, they will give ear’, he should depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that several nuns in a certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these nuns are not friends of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they will speak to them, saying: Sisters, a schism in the Order …’ = Kd.3.11.10 … there is no offence in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon the rains hears: ‘It is said that the Order in a certain residence is divided by several nuns’. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these nuns are friends of mine. I should speak to them, saying: Sisters, a schism in the Order … ‘ = Kd.3.11.10 … in cutting short the rains.

“This is a case … hears: ‘It is said that the Order in a certain residence is divided by several nuns ‘. If it then occurs to the monk: ‘Now these nuns are not friends of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they will speak to them, saying: Sisters, a schism in the Order …’ = Kd.3.11.10 … in cutting short the rains.”

Entering the rains in a cow pen, etc.

Now at that time a certain monk became desirous of entering on the rains in a cow-pen. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to enter on the rains in a cow-pen.” The cow-pen was removed. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to go to that cow-pen.


Now at that time, as the beginning of the rains was approaching, a certain monk became desirous of going in a caravan. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to enter on the rains in a caravan.” Now at that time, as the beginning of the rains was approaching, a certain monk became desirous of going in a boat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to enter on the rains in a boat.

Places for not entering the rains

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in hollow trees. People looked down on, criticised, spread it about, saying: “Like demon-worshippers.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains in hollow trees. Whoever should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains in forks of trees. People … spread it about, saying: “Like hunters.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains in the forks of trees. Whoever should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains in the open air. When the gods rained they ran up to the foot of trees and to the shelter of a nimb tree. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains in the open air. Whoever should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains without lodgings. They suffered from cold and they suffered from heat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains without lodgings. Whoever should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains in a charnel-house. People … spread it about, saying: “Like those who burn corpses”. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains in a charnel-house. Whoever … wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains under a sunshade. People … spread it about, saying: “Like cowherds”. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains under a sunshade. Whoever … wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks entered on the rains in a water-jar. People … spread it about, saying: “Like followers of other sects”. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter on the rains in a water-jar. Whoever … of wrong-doing.

Unlawful agreement

Now at that time an agreement came to be made by an Order in Sāvatthī that no one should be allowed to go forth during the rains. A nephew of Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, having approached monks, asked for the going forth. Monks spoke thus: “Sir, an agreement was made by the Order that during the rains no one should be allowed to go forth. Wait, sir, until the monks have kept the rains; when they have kept the rains they will allow you to go forth.” Then these monks, having kept the rains, spoke thus to the nephew of Visākhā, Migāra’s mother: “Come now, sir, go forth.” He spoke thus: “Honoured sirs, if I could have gone forth, I should have been pleased. But now, I, honoured sirs, will not go forth.”

Visākhā, Migāra’s mother … spread it about, saying: “How can the masters make an agreement to the effect that no one should be allowed to go forth during the rains? At what time should dhamma not be followed?” Monks heard Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, as she … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, an agreement that no one should be allowed to go forth during the rains should not be made. Whoever should make (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Offence of wrong-doing in assent

Now at that time a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala came to be assented to for the earlier period by the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans. As he was going to that residence, he saw on the way two residences with many robes. It occurred to him: “Now, suppose I should spend the rains in these two residences? Thus would many robes accrue to me.” He spent the rains in these two residences. King Pasenadi of Kosala … spread it about, saying: “How can this master Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having assented to our rains-residence, break his word? Is not lying condemned in many a figure by the Lord and restraint from lying extolled?”

Monks heard King Pasenadi of Kosala as he … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break his word? Is not lying condemned in many a figure by the Lord and restraint from lying extolled?”

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, saying: “Is it true, as is said, Upananda, that you, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, broke your word?”

“It is true, Lord.” The awakened one, the Lord, rebuked him, saying:

“How can you, foolish man, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break your word? Foolish man, is not lying condemned in many a figure by me and restraint from lying extolled? It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” and having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going to that residence he sees on the way two residences with many robes. It occurs to him: ‘What now if I should spend the rains in these two residences? Thus would many robes accrue to me.’ He spends the rains in these two residences. Monks, the earlier period is not valid for that monk, and also there is an offence of wrong-doing in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going to that residence he carries out Observance outside it, he reaches a dwelling-place on the day after the Observance day, he prepares a lodging, he sets out drinking-water and water for washing, he sweeps a cell, and, having nothing to do, he departs that self-same day. Monks, the earlier period is not valid for that monk, and also there is an offence of wrong-doing in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … = Kd.3.14.5 … he sweeps a cell, and, having something to do, he departs that self-same day. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having nothing to do, he departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having something to do he departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having stayed two or three days, he departs on some business that can be done in seven days. But he passes those seven days outside. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having stayed two or three days, he departs on some business that can be done in seven days. He returns within seven days. Monks, the earlier period is valid for that monk, and there is no offence in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and having something to do before the Invitation, he departs for seven days. Monks, whether that monk returns or whether he does not return to that residence, the earlier period is valid for that monk, and also there is no offence in the assent.

- “This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. Having arrived at that residence he carries out the Observance, he reaches a dwelling-place on the day after the Observance day…

“This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the later period. As he is going to that residence he carries out Observance outside it … the whole passage is identical with Kd.3.14.5–Kd.3.14.10; for earlier period read later period; for before the Invitation read before the komudī cātumāsinī … and also there is no offence in the assent.”

The Third Section: that on beginning the Rains

This is its key:

To enter on (the rains), and just when? how many?
and during the rains,
and they did not want to, intentionally,
to postpone, a lay-follower,
Ill, and a mother, a father,
and a brother, then a relation,
a person living with monks, a dwelling-place,
and also beasts of prey, creeping things,
And so thieves, and demons, burnt,
and in regard to both,
carried away by water, was removed,
and the majority, benefactors,
And about coarse and sumptuous (foods),
beneficial medicines, an attendant,
a woman, a low class woman,
and a grown girl, a eunuch, and about a relation,
Kings, thieves, men of abandoned life,
a treasure, schisms, and by what is eightfold,
a cow-pen, and a caravan,
and a boat, in a hollow, and in a fork,
A rains-residence in the open air,
and about one who had no lodgings,
a charnel-house, and under a sunshade,
and these went upon (the rains) in a water-jar,
An agreement, having assented,
and Observance days outside,
the earlier, the later,
one should combine them after the same fashion,
He departs having nothing to do,
and likewise because he has something to do,
spending two or three days,
and on business that can be done in seven days,
And then going away for seven days,
whether he should return or should not come back,
In the key to the items the order
should observe the woven way.

In this Chapter there are fifty-two items.