Theravāda Vinayapiṭaka

Khandhaka (Cūḷavagga)

22. (Recitation with) Seven Hundred (Sattasata)

First recitation section

Now at that time, a century after the Lord had attained nibbāna, monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī promulgated ten points at Vesālī, saying:

  1. “The practice concerning a horn for salt is allowable;
  2. the practice as to two finger-breadths is allowable;
  3. the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ is allowable;
  4. the practice concerning residences is allowable;
  5. the practice concerning assent is allowable;
  6. the practice concerning what is customary is allowable;
  7. the practice concerning unchurned butter-milk is allowable;
  8. it is allowable to drink unfermented toddy;
  9. a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border is allowable;
  10. gold and silver are allowable.”

Now at that time the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, walking on tour among the Vajjis, arrived at Vesālī. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, stayed there at Vesālī in the Great Grove in the Hall of the Gabled Roof. Now at that time the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, having on that Observance day filled a bronze pot with water, having set it in the midst of the Order of monks, spoke thus to lay-followers of Vesālī who came: “Give, sirs, a kahāpaṇa for the Order and half a pāda and a stamped māsaka; there will be something to be done for the Order in respect of requisites.”

When they had spoken thus, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the lay-followers of Vesālī: “Do not, sirs, give kahāpaṇas and stamped māsakas to the Order: gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans. The recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver, the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver, the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use jewels and refined gold, they have done with gold and silver.” Then the lay-followers of Vesālī, being spoken to thus by the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, nevertheless gave kahāpaṇas … and stamped māsakas to the Order. Then the monks who were Vajjis or Vesālī, having towards the end of that night arranged those gold coins, distributed portions according to the number of monks. Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī spoke thus to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā:

“This portion of gold coins is for you, reverend Yasa.”

“I have no need of a portion of gold coins, sirs, I do not consent (to accept) gold coins.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, saying: “This reverend Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is reviling and abusing lay-followers who are faithful and believing; come, let us carry out a (formal) act of reconciliation for him,” carried out a (formal) act of reconciliation for him. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā spoke thus to the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī:

“It was laid down by the Lord, your reverences, that a companion messenger should be given to a monk for whom a (formal) act of reconciliation has been carried out. Your reverences, give me a monk as companion messenger.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, having agreed upon one monk, gave him to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, as a companion messenger. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having entered Vesālī together with the monk who was his companion messenger, spoke thus to the lay-followers of Vesālī:

“It is said that I revile and abuse the venerable lay-followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma; in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

“Friends, the Lord was once staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. There, friends, the Lord addressed the monks, saying: ‘Monks, there are these four stains of the moon and the sun, stained by which stains the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not. What are the four? Dense cloud, monks, is a stain of the moon and the sun, stained by which stain the moon and the sun … blaze not. A snow-cloud … Smoke and dust … Rāhu, monks, is a stain of the moon and the sun, stained by which stain the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not. These, monks, are the four stains of the moon and the sun, stained by which stains the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not.

“‘Even so, monks, there are four stains of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stains some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not. What are the four? There are, monks, some recluses and brahmins who drink fermented liquor, who drink spirits, abstaining not from drinking fermented liquor and spirits. This, monks, is the first stain of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stain some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not. And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins indulge in sexual intercourse, abstaining not from sexual intercourse. This, monks, is the second stain … And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins consent (to accept) gold and silver abstaining not from accepting gold and silver. This, monks, is the third stain … And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins earn a living by a wrong mode of livelihood, abstaining not from a wrong mode of livelihood. This, monks, is the fourth stain, stained by which stain some recluses and brahmins … blaze not. These, monks, are the four stains of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stains some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not.’ Friends, the Lord said this; the Well-farer having said this, the Teacher further spoke thus:

“Some recluses and brahmins are stained
By lust and ill-will. Clothed in ignorance,
Beings delight in pleasure-giving shapes;
Liquor fermented and distilled they drink;
They follow sexual lust; by folly blinded
Some recluses and brahmins take gifts
Of gold and silver and live wrongfully.

These are called “stains” by the Awakened One,
The kinsman of the Sun. Tainted by these
Some recluses and brahmins burn not,
They shine not, tarnished, dust-soiled, utter fools,
Shrouded in darkness; slaves of craving they,
Led by the cord of craving, and they swell
The dreadful charnel-field and take on again-becoming.’

“It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing the venerable lay followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, and in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

“Friends, the Lord was once staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Now at that time, friends, in the king’s private quarters this conversation arose among the king’s assembly as they were gathered together and sitting down: ‘Gold and silver are allowable for the recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans receive gold and silver.’ Now at that time, friends, a village headman, Maṇicūḷaka, was sitting down in that assembly. Then, friends, Maṇicūḷaka, the village headman, spoke thus to that assembly: ‘Do not, masters, speak thus. Gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use gold and silver, they have done with gold and silver.’ And, friends, Maṇicūḷaka, the village headman, was able to convince that assembly. Then, friends, Maṇicūḷaka the village headman, having convinced that assembly approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Maṇicūḷaka the village headman, spoke thus to the Lord: ‘Now, Lord, in the king’s private quarters … I was able, Lord, to convince that assembly. I hope that I, Lord, maintaining thus, am one who asserts (fairly) what has been affirmed, and am not misrepresenting the Lord by what is not fact, but am maintaining a doctrine which conforms to his doctrine, and that no one who is a fellow dhamma-man, a holder of (his) views, comes to a position incurring blame.’

“‘Certainly you, village headman, maintaining thus, are one who asserts (fairly) what I have affirmed, and are not misrepresenting me by what is not fact, but are maintaining a doctrine which conforms to my doctrine, and no one who is a fellow dhamma-man, a holder of (my) views, comes to a position incurring blame. For, village headman, gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use gold and silver, they have done with gold and silver. To whoever, village headman, gold and silver are allowable to him also are allowable the five strands of sense-pleasures; to whoever the five strands of sense-pleasures are allowable, certainly you may understand, village headman, (this to be) not the dhamma of recluses, not the dhamma of sons of the Sakyans. Although I, village headman, spoke thus: Grass may be looked about for by one who needs grass; wood may be looked about for by one who needs wood; a wagon may be looked about for by one who needs a wagon; a man may be looked about for by one who needs a man—yet I, village headman, have never said in any way that gold and silver may be consented to or looked about for.’ It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing venerable lay-followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

“Once, friends, when the Lord was in Rājagaha, as before, he objected in connection with Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, to gold and silver and laid down a rule of training. It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing venerable lay-followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.”

When he had spoken thus the lay-followers of Vesālī spoke thus to Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā: “Honoured sir, master Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is alone a recluse, a son of the Sakyans; these, one and all, are not recluses, not sons of the Sakyans. Honoured sir, let master Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, stay in Vesālī and we will make an effort in regard to the requisites of robes, almsfood, lodgings, medicines for the sick.”

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having convinced the lay-followers of Vesālī, went to a monastery together with the monk who was his companion messenger.

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī asked the monk who was the companion messenger, saying: “Your reverence, have the lay-followers of Vesālī been asked for forgiveness by Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā?”

“Your reverences, evil has been done to us; Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is alone regarded as a recluse, a son of the Sakyans; we, one and all, are regarded as not recluses, not sons of the Sakyans.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, saying: “Your reverences, this Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, not agreed upon by us, has given information to householders. Come, let us carry out a (formal) act of suspension against him.” And these gathered together desirous of carrying out a (formal) act of suspension against him. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having risen above the ground, reappeared at Kosambī. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, sent a messenger to the monks of Pāvā and (to those) of the southern region of Avantī, saying:

“Let the venerable ones come, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble, (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”


Now at that time the venerable Sambhūta, a wearer of coarse hempen cloth, was staying on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, approached Ahogaṅgā mountain slope and the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth; having approached, having greeted the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth:

“Honoured sir, these monks, Vajjis of Vesālī, are promulgating ten points: the practice concerning a horn for salt is allowable; the practice as to five finger-breadths is allowable; the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ is allowable; the practice concerning residences is allowable; the practice concerning assent is allowable; the practice concerning what is customary is allowable; the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk is allowable; it is allowable to drink unfermented toddy; a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border is allowable; gold and silver are allowable. Come, honoured sir, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble, (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”

“Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, answered the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā in assent. Then as many as sixty monks of Pāvā, all forest-dwellers, all almsmen, all rag-robe wearers, all wearers of the three robes, one and all men perfected, gathered together on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope; and as many as eighty-eight monks of the southern region of Avantī, mostly forest-dwellers, mostly almsmen, mostly rag-robe wearers, mostly wearers of the three robes, and one and all men perfected, gathered together on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope.

Then as these monks who were elders were considering, it occurred to them: “Now, this legal question is hard and troublesome. How can we acquire a faction through which we could be stronger in regard to this legal question?” Now at that time the venerable Revata was staying in Soreyya. He had heard much, he was one to whom the tradition had been handed down, he was an expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the headings; wise, experienced, clever; conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. Then it occurred to the monks who were elders:

“This venerable Revata is staying in Soreyya. He has heard much … desirous of training. If we could acquire the venerable Revata for the faction, thus could we be stronger in regard to this legal question.”

Then the venerable Revata, through the condition of deva-like hearing which was purified, surpassing that of men, heard these monks who were elders as they were considering. And having heard them, it occurred to him: ‘This legal question is hard and troublesome, yet it is not suitable for me to hold back from a legal question like this. But these monks are coming now. I will get no comfort crowded up by them. Suppose that I should go away beforehand?’

Then the venerable Revata went from Soreyya to Saṁkassa. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Soreyya, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “The venerable Revata has gone to Saṁkassa.” Then the venerable Revata went from Saṁkassato Kaṇṇakujja. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Saṁkassa, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Kaṇṇakujja.” Then the venerable Revata went from Kaṇṇakujja to Udumbara. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Kaṇṇakujja, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Udumbara.” Then the venerable Revata went from Udumbara to Aggaḷapura. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Udumbara, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Aggaḷapura.” Then the venerable Revata went from Aggaḷapura to Sahajāti. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Aggaḷapura, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Sahajāti.” Then the monks who were elders met the venerable Revata at Sahajāti.

Then the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, spoke thus to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā: “Your reverence, this venerable Revata has heard much, he is one to whom the tradition has been handed down, he is an expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the headings; wise, experienced, clever; conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. If we were to ask the venerable Revata a question, the venerable Revata would be capable of spending a whole night over just the one question. But now the venerable Revata will call upon a monk who is a pupil and a plain-song repeater. Do you, when that monk has completed the plain-song intonation, having approached the venerable Revata, ask him about these ten points.”

“Very well, honoured sir,” the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, answered the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, in assent. Then the venerable Revata called upon the monk who was a pupil and a plain-song repeater. Then when that monk had completed the plain-song intonation, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, approached the venerable Revata; having approached, having greeted the venerable Revata, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the venerable Revata:

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning a horn for salt allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning a horn for salt?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to carry about salt in a horn, thinking, ‘I will enjoy whatever may be unsalted’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning two finger-breadths allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning two finger-breadths?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to eat a meal at the wrong time when the shadow has passed beyond two finger-breadths?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning ‘among the villages’?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking, ‘I will go now among the villages,’ having eaten, being satisfied, to eat a meal that is not left over?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning residences allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning residences?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for several residences belonging to the same boundary to carry out various Observances?”

“Your reverences, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning assent allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning assent?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for an incomplete Order to carry out a (formal) act, thinking, ‘We will advise monks who arrive’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning what is customary allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning what is customary?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking, ‘This is habitually done by my preceptor, this is habitually done by my teacher,’ to conduct oneself according to that?”

“Your reverence, the practice concerning what is customary is sometimes allowable, sometimes not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning unchurned buttermilk?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, having eaten, being satisfied, to drink whatever is milk that is not left over but which has passed the stage of being milk (although) it has not arrived at the stage of being curds?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink unfermented toddy?”

“What, your reverence, is this toddy?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink whatever is fermented liquor (but) which has not fermented and has not arrived at the stage of being strong drink?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border allowable?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, are gold and silver allowable?”

“Your reverence, they are not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, these monks who are Vajjis of Vesālī are promulgating these ten points in Vesālī. Come, honoured sir, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”

“Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Revata answered the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā in assent.

The First Portion for Repeating.

Second recitation section

The monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī heard: “They say that Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is willing to attend to this legal question, is looking about for a faction, and they say that he is acquiring a faction.” Then it occurred to the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī: “This legal question is hard and troublesome. How could we acquire a faction through which we could be stronger in regard to this legal question?” Then it occurred to the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī: “This venerable Revata is one who has heard much, one to whom the tradition has been handed down, he is expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the headings; he is wise, experienced, clever; conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. If we could acquire the venerable Revata for the faction, thus could we be stronger in regard to this legal question.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī prepared abundant requisites for recluses—bowls and robes and pieces of cloth to sit upon and needle-cases and waistbands and strainers and regulation water-pots. Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, taking these requisites of recluses, went in a boat upstream to Sahājati; having disembarked from the boat, they participated in a meal at the root of a certain tree.

Then as the venerable Sāḷha was meditating in private a reasoning arose in his mind thus: “Which now are the speakers of dhamma—the monks from the East or those from Pāvā?” Then as the venerable Sāḷha was considering dhamma and discipline it occurred to him: “The monks from the East are not speakers of dhamma; the monks of Pāvā are speakers of dhamma.” Then a certain devatā of the Pure Abodes, knowing by mind the reasoning in the mind of the venerable Sāḷha, as a strong man might stretch out his bent back arm or might bend back his outstretched arm, even so, vanishing from the devas of the Pure Abodes, did she appear before the venerable Sāḷha. Then that devatā spoke thus to the venerable Sāḷha: “It is right, honoured Sāḷha, the monks from the East are not speakers of dhamma, the monks of Pāvā are speakers of dhamma. Well then, revered Sāḷha, stand firm according to dhamma.”

“Both formerly and now I, devatā, have stood firm according to dhamma. Nevertheless I am not making known my views until I may be agreed upon in regard to this legal question.”

Then those monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, taking those requisites for recluses, approached the venerable Revata; having approached, they spoke thus to the venerable Revata: “Honoured sir, let the Order accept these requisites for recluses—bowls and robes and pieces of cloth to sit upon and needle-cases and waistbands and strainers and regulation water-pots.”

He said: “No, your reverences, I am complete as to the three robes” (for) he did not want to accept. Now at that time a monk named Uttara, of twenty years’ standing was the venerable Revata’s attendant. Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī approached the venerable Uttara; having approached, they spoke thus to the venerable Uttara: “Let the venerable Uttara accept these requisites for recluses—bowls and … regulation water-pots.”

He said: “No, your reverences, I am complete as to the three robes,” (for) he did not want to accept. They said: “Reverend Uttara, people used to bring requisites for recluses to the Lord. If the Lord accepted them, they were glad; but if the Lord did not accept them, they brought them to the venerable Ānanda, saying: ‘Honoured sir, let the elder accept these requisites for recluses, thus will this (gift) be as though accepted by the Lord.’ Let the venerable Uttara accept these requisites of recluses, thus will this (gift) be as though accepted by the elder.”

Then the venerable Uttara, being pressed by the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, took one robe, saying: “Let the reverend ones tell me what they have need of.”

“Let the venerable Uttara say this much to the elder: ‘Honoured sir, let the elder say this much in the midst of the Order: Awakened Ones, Lords, arise in the Eastern districts, the monks from the East are speakers of dhamma, the monks of Pāvā are speakers of what is not dhamma’.”

“Very well, your reverences,” and the venerable Uttara, having answered the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī in assent, approached the venerable Revata; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Revata: “Honoured sir, let the elder say this much in the midst of the Order: Awakened Ones, Lords, arise in the Eastern districts, the monks from the East are speakers of dhamma, the monks of Pāvā are speakers of what is not dhamma.”

Saying: “You, monk, are inciting me to what is not dhamma,” the elder dismissed the venerable Uttara. Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī spoke thus to the venerable Uttara: “What, reverend Uttara, did the elder say?”

“Evil has been done to us, your reverences. Saying, ‘You, monk, are inciting me to what is not dhamma,’ the elder dismissed me.”

“Are not you, your reverence, a senior of twenty years’ standing?”

“Yes, your reverences.”

“Then we shall take up guidance under (you as) teacher.”


Then the Order assembled wishing to investigate that legal question. The venerable Revata informed the Order, saying: “Your reverences, let the Order listen to me. If we were to settle that legal question here, it might be that the monks who had taken it up originally might open it up for a further (formal) act. If it seems right to the Order, let the Order settle this legal question wherever this legal question arose.


Then the monks who were elders went to Vesālī willing to investigate that legal question. Now at that time Sabbakāmin was the name of an elder of the Order, (the oldest) on earth; it was a hundred and twenty years since his ordination; he had shared the cell of the venerable Ānanda, and he was staying at Vesālī. Then the venerable Revata spoke thus to the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth: “I, your reverence, am going up to the dwelling-place where the venerable Sabbākamin is staying. Do you, having gone up early to the venerable Sabbākamin, ask him about these ten points.”

“Very well, honoured sir,” the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, answered the venerable Revata in assent. Then the venerable Revata went up to that dwelling place where the venerable Sabbakāmin was staying. A lodging was made ready for the venerable Sabbakāmin in an inner room, and one for the venerable Revata on the veranda of the inner room. Then the venerable Revata, thinking: “I This elder is old, but he is not lying down,” did not lie down to sleep. The venerable Sabbakāmin, thinking: “This incoming monk is tired, but he is not lying down,” did not lie down to sleep.

Then at the end of the night towards dawn, the venerable Sabbakāmin spoke thus to the venerable Revata: “Because of what abiding do you, dear, abide now in the fullness thereof?”

“Because of abiding in loving-kindness, do I, honoured sir, abide now in the fullness thereof.”

“They say that you, dear, because of abiding in friendship now abide in the fullness thereof. This abiding in friendship, beloved, this is loving-kindness.”

“Formerly, honoured sir, when I was a householder loving-kindness was practised by me, and because of that abiding in loving-kindness I now abide in the fullness thereof, and moreover perfection was attained by me long ago. Honoured sir, because of what abiding does the elder now abide in the fullness thereof?”

“Because of abiding in (the concept of) emptiness do I, beloved, now abide in the fullness thereof.”

“They say that the elder, honoured sir, because of the abiding of great men now abides in the fullness thereof. This abiding of great men, honoured sir, this is (the concept of) emptiness.”

“Formerly, beloved, when I was a householder emptiness was practised by me, and because of that abiding in emptiness I now abide in the fullness thereof, and moreover perfection was attained by me long ago.”

Then this chance talk of the monks who were elders was interrupted, because the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, arrived there. Then the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, approached the venerable Sabbakāmin; having approached, having greeted the venerable Sabbakāmin, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, spoke thus to the venerable Sabbakāmin:

“Honoured sir, these monks who are Vajjis of Vesālī are promulgating ten points: the practice concerning a horn for salt is allowable … gold and silver are allowable. Honoured sir, much dhamma, and discipline has been mastered by the elder at the feet of a preceptor. As, honoured sir, the elder was considering dhamma and discipline, what occurred to him? Who are the speakers of dhamma—the monks from the East or those of Pāvā?”

“By you too, your reverence, has much dhamma and discipline been mastered at the feet of a preceptor. As you, your reverence, were considering dhamma and discipline, what occurred to you? Who are the speakers of dhamma—the monks from the East or those of Pāvā?”

“As I, honoured sir, was considering dhamma and discipline, this occurred to me: ‘the monks from the East are speakers of what is not dhamma, the monks of Pāvā are speakers of dhamma.’ Nevertheless I am not making known my views until I am agreed upon in regard to this legal question.”

“As I too, your reverence, was considering dhamma and discipline, this occurred to me: the monks from the East are speakers of what is not dhamma, the monks of Pāvā are speakers of dhamma. Nevertheless I am not making known my views until I am agreed upon in regard to this legal question.”


Then the Order assembled, willing to investigate that legal question. But while they were investigating that legal question both endless disputations arose and of not one speech was the meaning clear. Then the venerable Revata informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. While we were investigating this legal question both endless disputations arose and of not one speech was the meaning clear. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may settle this legal question by means of a referendum.” He selected four monks from the East, four monks from Pāvā—of the Eastern monks the venerable Sabbakāmin and the venerable Sāḷha and the venerable Khujjasobhita and the venerable Vāsabhagāmika; of the monks from Pāvā the venerable Revata and the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, and the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, and the venerable Sumana. Then the venerable Revata informed the Order, saying:

Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. While we were investigating this legal question both endless disputations arose and of not one speech was the meaning clear. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may agree upon the four monks from the East and the four monks from Pāvā to settle this legal question by means of a referendum. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. While we were investigating this legal question … was the meaning clear. The Order is agreeing upon the four monks from the East and the four monks from Pāvā to settle this legal question by means of a referendum. If the agreement upon the four monks from the East and the four monks from Pāvā to settle this legal question by means of a referendum is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The four monks from the East and the four monks from Pāvā are agreed upon by the Order to settle this legal question by means of a referendum. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.


Now at that time Ajita was the name of a monk of ten years’ standing; he was a reciter of the Pātimokkha for the Order. Then the Order further agreed upon the venerable Ajita as appointer of seats for the monks who were elders. Then it occurred to the monks who were elders: “Now where should we settle this legal question?” Then it occurred to the monks who were elders: “This Vālika monastery is pleasing, with little noise, with little disturbance. Suppose that we should settle this legal question in Vālika monastery?” Then the monks who were elders went to Vālika monastery, willing to investigate that legal question.

Then the venerable Revata informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, I can ask the venerable Sabbakāmin about discipline.” Then the venerable Sabbakāmin informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, I, questioned about discipline by the venerable Revata, can answer.” Then the venerable Revata spoke thus to the venerable Sabbakāmin:

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning a horn for salt allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning a horn for salt?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to carry about salt in a horn, thinking: ‘I will enjoy whatever may be unsalted’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“In Sāvatthī, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for eating what has been stored.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This first point, investigated by the Order, this is a point that is against dhamma, against discipline, not of the Teacher’s instruction. This is the first (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning two finger-breadths allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning two finger-breadths?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to eat a meal at the wrong time if the shadow has passed beyond two finger-breadths?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“At Rājagaha, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for eating at the wrong time.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This second point … This is the second (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ allowable?”

What, your reverence, is this practice concerning ‘among the villages’?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking: ‘I will go now among the villages,’ having eaten, being satisfied, to eat a meal that is not left over?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“At Sāvatthī, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for eating what is not left over.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This third point … This is the third (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning residences allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning residences?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for several residences belonging to the same boundary to carry out various Observances?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“In Rājagaha, in what is connected with the Observance.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

An offence of wrong-doing for going beyond discipline.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This fourth point … This is the fourth (voting-) ticket that I cast.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning assent allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is the practice concerning assent?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for an incomplete Order to carry out a (formal) act, thinking: ‘We will advise monks who arrive’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“In a matter of discipline on things pertaining to (the monks of) Campā.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of wrong-doing for going beyond discipline.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This fifth point … This is the fifth (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning what is customary allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning what is customary?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking: ‘This is what is habitually done by my preceptor, this is what is habitually done by my teacher,’ to conduct oneself according to that?”

“Your reverence, the practice concerning what is customary is sometimes allowable, sometimes not allowable.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This sixth point … This is the sixth (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable having eaten, being satisfied, to drink whatever is milk that is not left over but which has passed the stage of being milk (although) it has not arrived at the stage of being curds?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“At Sāvatthī, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for eating what was not left over.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This seventh point … This is the seventh (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink unfermented toddy?”

“What, your reverence, is this unfermented toddy?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink whatever is fermented liquor, but which has not fermented and has not arrived at the stage of being strong drink?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“At Kosambī, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for drinking fermented liquor and spirits.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This eighth point … This is the eighth (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, is a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border allowable?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Where was it objected to?”

“At Sāvatthī, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation involving cutting down.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This ninth point … This is the ninth (voting-) ticket that I cast.

“Honoured sir, are gold and silver allowable?”

“Your reverence, they are not allowable.”

“Where were they objected to?”

“At Rājagaha, in the Suttavibhaṅga.”

“What offence does one fall into?”

“An offence of expiation for accepting gold and silver.”

“Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This tenth point, investigated by the Order, this is a matter that is against dhamma, against discipline, not of the Teacher’s instruction. This is the tenth (voting-) ticket that I cast. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. These ten points, investigated by the Order, these are matters that are against dhamma, against discipline, not of the Teacher’s instruction.”

“This legal question, your reverence, is concluded, and being settled is well settled. Nevertheless you, your reverence, may also question me in the midst of the Order on these ten points in order to convince these monks.”

So the venerable Revata also questioned the venerable Sabbakāmin in the midst of the Order on these ten points, and the venerable Sabbakāmin, being questioned, answered.

Now because seven hundred monks—not one less and not one more—were at this chanting of the discipline, this chanting of the discipline is called “that of the Seven Hundred.”

Told is the Twelfth Section: that on the Seven Hundred.

In this section are twenty-five items. This is its key:

Ten points, having filled, formal act, entered with a messenger,
the four, and on gold (and silver) again
and Kosambī, the monks of Pāvā, /
The way to Soreyya, Saṁkāsa, Kaṇṇakujja, Udumbara,
and Sahamjāti, he called upon, he heard, “How could we?” /
Bowl (and) they went in a boat upstream,
he was in private, they used to bring this
teacher (and) the Order and Vesālī,
loving-kindness, the Order, referendum.

Told is the Lesser Division.