Theravāda Collection on Monastic Law

Monks’ rules and their analysis

Monks’ Expulsion

3. The third training rule

Origin story

First sub-story

At one time, the Buddha was staying at Vesālī in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood. At that time the Master spoke to the monks in many ways about unattractiveness— he spoke in praise of unattractiveness, in praise of developing the mind in unattractiveness, and in praise of the attainment of unattractiveness.

The Master then addressed the monks: “Monks, I wish to go into solitary retreat for half a month. No-one is to approach me except the one who brings me almsfood.”

“Yes, Venerable Sir,” they replied, and no-one approached him except the one who brought him almsfood.

The monks thought, “The Master has talked in many ways about unattractiveness,” and they devoted themselves to the development of the mind in unattractiveness in its many different aspects. As a consequence, they became troubled by their own bodies, ashamed of them, disgusted with them. Just as a young woman or man—someone fond of adornments, who had just washed her hair—would be ashamed, humiliated, and disgusted if the carcase of a snake, a dog, or a man were hung around her neck, just so those monks were troubled by their own bodies. They took their own lives, took the lives of one another, and they approached Migalaṇḍika, the ascetic lookalike, and said, “Please kill us. This bowl and robe will be yours.” And hired for a bowl and robe, Migalaṇḍika killed many monks.

He took his blood-stained knife to the river Vaggumudā, and while he was washing it, he became anxious and remorseful: “This is truly bad for me; I’ve made much demerit by killing virtuous monks.”

Then, walking across the water, a god from the realm of the lord of death said to Migalaṇḍika, “Well done, superior man, you’re truly fortunate. You’ve made much merit, because you’ve brought across those who hadn’t yet crossed.”

And Migalaṇḍika thought, “So it seems that I’m fortunate and that I’ve made much merit.” He then went from dwelling to dwelling, from precincts to precincts, and said, “Who hasn’t crossed yet? Whom do I bring across?” The monks who still had sensual desire became fearful and terrified, with their hair standing on end. Only those who were free from desires were unaffected.

Then, on a single day, Migalaṇḍika killed one monk, two monks, three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, even sixty monks.

At the end of that half-month, the Master came out of seclusion and said to Venerable Ānanda, “Ānanda, why is the Order of monks so diminished?”

Ānanda told him what had happened and added, “Venerable Sir, please give another instruction so that the Order of monks may become established in final knowledge.”

“Well then, Ānanda, bring together in the assembly-hall all the monks who live near Vesālī.” “Yes.” When he had done so, he approached the Master and said, “Venerable Sir, the Order of monks is assembled. Please do as you think is appropriate.”

The Master then went to the assembly-hall, sat down on the prepared seat, and addressed the monks:

“Monks, when stillness by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, it is peaceful and sublime, a satisfying state of bliss. And it stops and settles bad, unwholesome qualities on the spot, whenever they arise. Just as a great, unseasonal storm in the last month of the hot season stops and settles the dust and dirt in the air, just so, when stillness by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, it is peaceful and sublime, and it stops and settles bad, unwholesome qualities on the spot, whenever they arise.

And how is stillness by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated in this way?

A monk sits down in the wilderness, at the foot of a tree, or in an empty hut." He crosses his legs, straightens his body, and establishes mindfulness in front of him. Simply mindful, he breathes in; simply mindful, he breathes out.

When he breathes in long, he knows it; and when he breathes out long, he knows that. When he breathes in short, he knows it; and when he breathes out short, he knows that. When breathing in, he trains in having the full experience of the breath; when breathing out, he trains in having the full experience of the breath. When breathing in, he trains in calming the activity of the body; when breathing out, he trains in calming the activity of the body.

When breathing in, he trains in experiencing joy; when breathing out, he trains in experiencing joy. When breathing in, he trains in experiencing bliss; when breathing out, he trains in experiencing bliss. When breathing in, he trains in experiencing the activity of the mind; when breathing out, he trains in experiencing the activity of the mind. When breathing in, he trains in calming the activity of the mind; when breathing out, he trains in calming the activity of the mind.

When breathing in, he trains in experiencing the mind; when breathing out, he trains in experiencing the mind. When breathing in, he trains in gladdening the mind; when breathing out, he trains in gladdening the mind. When breathing in, he trains in stilling the mind; when breathing out, he trains in stilling the mind. When breathing in, he trains in freeing the mind; when breathing out, he trains in freeing the mind.

When breathing in, he trains in contemplating impermanence; when breathing out, he trains in contemplating impermanence. When breathing in, he trains in contemplating fading away; when breathing out, he trains in contemplating fading away. When breathing in, he trains in contemplating cessation; when breathing out, he trains in contemplating cessation. When breathing in, he trains in contemplating relinquishment; when breathing out, he trains in contemplating relinquishment.

Monks, when stillness by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way, it is peaceful and sublime, a satisfying state of bliss, and it stops and settles bad, unwholesome qualities on the spot, whenever they arise.”

The Master then had the Order of monks assembled and asked them: “Is it true, monks, that some monks have taken their own lives, have killed one another, and have said to Migalaṇḍika, ‘Please kill us; this bowl and robe will be yours’?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha criticized them: “Monks, it’s not suitable for these monks, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it should not be done. How could those monks take their own lives, kill one another, and say to Migalaṇḍika, ‘Please kill us; this bowl and robe will be yours’? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Preliminary ruling

‘If a monk intentionally kills a human being or seeks an instrument of death for him, he too is expelled and not in communion.’”

In this way the Master laid down this training rule for the monks.

Second sub-story

At one time a lay follower was sick. He had a beautiful and pleasant wife, and monks from the group of six had fallen in love with her. They said to each other, “If this lay follower lives, we won’t get this woman. Come, let’s praise death to him.”

They then went to that lay follower and said, “You’ve done what’s good and wholesome; you’ve made a shelter against fear. You haven’t done anything bad: you haven’t been greedy or immoral. What’s the point of this wretched and difficult life? Death is better for you than life. When you have passed away, you’ll be reborn in a happy place, in heaven. There you’ll be able to enjoy the five kinds of heavenly sense pleasure.”

That lay follower thought, “The Venerables have spoken the truth, for I’ve done what’s good and avoided what’s bad, and after death I’ll be reborn in a happy place.”

From then on he ate various kinds of detrimental food and drank detrimental drinks, and as a consequence, he became seriously ill and died.

But his wife complained and criticized those monks: “These Sakyan ascetics are shameless and immoral liars. They claim to live according to the Truth, to be celibate and of good conduct, to be truthful, moral, and of good character. But they don’t have the qualities of an ascetic or a brahmin; they’ve lost the plot. They praised death to my husband, and because of them my husband has died.”

And other people complained and criticized them in the same way.

The monks heard the criticism of those people. Those monks who had few desires and a sense of conscience, who were contented, afraid of wrongdoing, and desirous of training, complained and criticized those monks: “How could they praise death to that lay follower?”

After criticizing those monks in various ways, they informed the Master …

“Is it true, monks, that you praised death to that lay follower?”

“It’s true, Master.”

The Buddha rebuked them: “Foolish men, it’s not suitable, it’s not proper, it’s not worthy of an ascetic, it’s not allowable, it should not be done. How could you praise death to that lay follower? This will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And so, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Final ruling

‘If a monk intentionally kills a human being or seeks an instrument of death for him or praises death or incites someone to die, saying, “Good man, what’s the point of this wretched and difficult life? Death is better for you than life!”— thinking and intending thus, if he praises death in various ways or incites someone to die— he too is expelled and not in communion.’”

Definitions

A: whoever … Monk: … The monk who has been given the full ordination by a complete Order through a formal procedure consisting of one motion and three announcements that is unchallengeable and fit to stand—this sort of monk is meant in this case.

Intentionally: knowing, perceiving, having intended, having decided, he transgresses.

A human being: from the mind’s first appearance in a mother’s womb, from the first manifestation of consciousness, until the time of death: in between these— this is called “a human being.”

Kills: Cuts off the life faculty, brings it to an end, interrupts its continuation.

Or seeks an instrument of death for him: a sword, a dagger, an arrow, a club, a rock, a knife, poison, or a rope.

Or praises death: he shows the disadvantage in living and speaks in praise of death.

Or incites someone to die: he says, “Kill yourself with a knife/eat poison/die by hanging yourself with a rope.”

Good man: this is a form of address.

What’s the point of this wretched and difficult life: Wretched life: the life of the poor is wretched compared to the life of the rich; the life of the impoverished is wretched compared to the life of the wealthy; the life of humans is wretched compared to the life of the gods.

Difficult life: the life of one whose hands are cut off, whose feet are cut off, whose hands and feet are cut off, whose ears are cut off, whose nose is cut off, whose ears and nose are cut off. Because of this sort of wretchedness and because of this sort of difficult life, one says, “Death is better for you than life.”

Thinking: mind and thought are equivalent.

Intending: perceiving death, intending death, aiming at death.

In various ways: in different manners.

He praises death: he shows the disadvantage in living and speaks in praise of death, saying, “When you’ve passed away, with the break-up of the body after death, you’ll be reborn in a happy destination, in a heaven world. There you’ll have access to and enjoy the five kinds of heavenly sense pleasures.”

Or incites someone to die: he says, “Kill yourself with a knife/eat poison/die by hanging yourself with a rope/jump into a chasm/jump into a pit/jump off a cliff.”

He too: this is said with reference to the preceding offenses entailing expulsion.

Is expelled: just as an ordinary stone that has been broken in half cannot be put back together again, so too a monk who has intentionally killed a human being is not an ascetic, not a son of the Sakyan— therefore it is said, “he is expelled.”

Not in communion: Communion: common formal procedures, the same recital, the same training— this is called “communion.” He does not take part in this— therefore it is called “not in communion.”

Permutations

Summary

Oneself, having resolved, by messenger, by a series of messengers, by a messenger who does not follow instructions, by a messenger gone and returned again.

Not in private, but perceiving it as private; in private, but perceiving it as not private; not in private, and perceiving it as not private; in private, and perceiving it as private.

He praises by means of the body; he praises by means of speech; he praises by means of both the body and speech; he praises by means of a messenger; he praises by means of writing.

A pit, a piece of furniture, placing near, medicine, arranging a sight, arranging a sound, arranging a smell, arranging a taste, arranging a touch, arranging a mental state, information, instruction, an arranged action, making a sign.

Exposition

Oneself: one oneself kills by means of the body or by means of something attached to the body or by means of something released.

Having resolved: having resolved, he tells someone, “Hit thus, strike thus, kill thus.”

By messenger: If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk kills that person, thinking he is the one he was told to kill, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk kills someone else, thinking he is the one he was told to kill, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the murderer.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk kills that person, thinking it is someone else than the one he was told to kill, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk kills someone else, thinking it is someone else than the one he was told to kill, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the murderer.

By a series of messengers: If a monk tells a second monk, “Tell so-and-so to tell so-and-so to kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. In informing the next person, there is an offense of wrong conduct. If the murderer-to-be agrees, there is a serious offense for the instigator. If he kills that person, there is an offense entailing expulsion for all of them.

By a messenger who does not follow instructions: If a monk tells a second monk, “Tell so-and-so to tell so-and-so to kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk tells someone else than the one he was told to tell, he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the murderer-to-be agrees, there is an offense of wrong conduct. If he kills that person, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the messenger and for the murderer.

By a messenger gone and returned again: If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. He goes, but returns, saying, “I wasn’t able to kill them.” If the first monk tells him again, “When you’re able, then kill them,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the second monk kills that person, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. He then becomes remorseful, but does not say, “Don’t kill them.” If the second monk then kills that person, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. He then becomes remorseful and says, “Don’t kill them.” If the second monk replies, “I’ve been told by you to do so,” and then kills that person, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the murderer.

If a monk tells a second monk, “Kill so-and-so,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. He then becomes remorseful and says, “Don’t kill them.” If the second monk replies, “Very well,” and desists, there is no offense for either.


Not in private, but perceiving it as private: if he says aloud, “I wish so-and-so were killed,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

In private, but perceiving it as not private: if he says aloud, “I wish so-and-so were killed,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

Not in private, and perceiving it as not private: if he says aloud, “I wish so-and-so were killed,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct.

In private, and perceiving it as private: if he says aloud, “I wish so-and-so were killed,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct.


He praises by means of the body: if a monk makes a gesture with the body, indicating, “Whoever dies thus, receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, because of that praise, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

He praises by means of speech: if a monk says, “Whoever dies thus, receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, because of that praise, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

He praises by means of the body and speech: if a monk makes a gesture with the body and says, “Whoever dies thus, receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, because of that praise, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

He praises by means of a messenger: if a monk gives instructions to a messenger, saying, “Whoever dies thus, receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, after hearing the messenger’s instruction, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” nd he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

He praises by means of a writing: if a monk writes, “Whoever dies thus, receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct for each character he writes. If, after seeing the writing, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.


A pit: if a monk digs a pit for people, thinking, “Falling into it someone will die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If they experience pain after falling, the monk commits a serious offense. If they die, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

If a monk digs a non-specific pit, thinking, “Whatever falls into it will die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If a person falls into it, the monk commits an offense of wrong conduct. If they experience pain after falling, the monk commits a serious offense. If they die, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a spirit, ghost, or animal in human form falls into it, the monk commits an offense of wrong conduct. If it experiences pain after falling, the monk commits an offense of wrong conduct. If it dies, the monk commits a serious offense. If an animal falls into it, the monk commits an offense of wrong conduct. If it experiences pain after falling, the monk commits an offense of wrong conduct. If it dies, the monk commits an offense entailing confession.

A piece of furniture: if a monk places a dagger in a piece of furniture, smears the furniture with poison, or makes it weak, or if he places it near a lake, a pit, or a cliff, thinking, “Falling down, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person experiences pain because of the dagger or the poison or the fall, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Placing near: if a monk places a knife, a dagger, an arrow, a club, a stone, a sword, poison, or a rope near a person, thinking, “Using this, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person thinks, “Using that, I shall die,” and he does something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Tonics: if a monk gives a person ghee, butter, oil, honey, or sugar, thinking, “After tasting this, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person tastes it and experiences pain, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.


Arranging a sight: if a monk arranges a dreadful and terrifying sight, thinking, “Seeing this and becoming terrified, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person sees it and becomes terrified, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk arranges a lovely sight, thinking, “Seeing this and then not being able to obtain it, they’ll wither and die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person sees it and then withers because of not obtaining it, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Arranging a sound: if a monk arranges a dreadful and terrifying sound, thinking, “Hearing this and becoming terrified, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person hears it and becomes terrified, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk arranges a lovely and heart-stirring sound, thinking, “Hearing this and then not being able to obtain it, they’ll wither and die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person hears it and then withers because of not obtaining it, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Arranging a smell: if a monk arranges a disgusting and repulsive smell, thinking, “Smelling this, they’ll die from disgust and aversion,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person smells it and experiences suffering because of disgust and aversion, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk arranges a lovely smell, thinking, “Smelling this and then not being able to obtain it, they’ll wither and die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person smells it and then withers because of not obtaining it, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Arranging a taste: if a monk arranges a disgusting and repulsive taste, thinking, “Tasting this, they’ll die from disgust and aversion,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person tastes it and experiences suffering because of disgust and aversion, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk arranges a delicious taste, thinking, “Tasting this and then not being able to obtain it, they’ll wither and die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person tastes it and then withers because of not obtaining it, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Arranging a touch: if a monk arranges a painful and harsh physical contact, thinking, “Touched by this, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person makes contact with it and experiences pain, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk arranges a pleasant and soft physical contact, thinking, “Touched by this and then not being able to obtain it, they’ll wither and die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person is touched by it and then withers because of not obtaining it, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Arranging a mental state: if a monk talks about hell to someone bound for hell, thinking, “Hearing this and becoming terrified, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person hears it and becomes terrified, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion. If a monk talks about heaven to someone of good behavior, thinking, “Hearing this and being keen on it, they’ll die,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the target person hears it, becomes keen on it, and thinks, “I shall die,” and they do something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.


Information: if, being asked, a monk says, “Die in this way; anyone who dies like this receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, because of that information, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and they do something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

Instruction: if, without being asked, a monk says, “Die in this way; anyone who dies like this receives wealth/becomes famous/goes to heaven,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, because of that instruction, the target person thinks, “I shall die,” and they do something painful, the monk commits a serious offense. If the person dies, the monk commits an offense entailing expulsion.

An arranged action: if a monk makes an arrangement for before the meal or for after the meal, for the night or for the day, telling another person, “Kill that person according to this arrangement,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If the other person kills that person according to that arrangement, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both. If he kills him before or after the arranged time, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the murderer.

Making a sign: a monk makes a sign. If he says to another person, “When I wink/raise my eyebrow/nod, at that sign kill that person,” he commits an offense of wrong conduct. If, at that sign, the other person kills that person, there is an offense entailing expulsion for both. If he kills him before or after the sign, there is no offense for the instigator, but there is an offense entailing expulsion for the murderer.

Non-offenses

There is no offense: if it is unintentional; if he does not know; if he is not aiming at death; if he is insane; if he is the first offender.

The first section on expulsion in relation to human beings is finished.


Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Praising, sitting down,
And with pestle, with mortar;
Gone forth when old, flowing out,
First, experimental poison.

And three with making sites,
Another three with bricks;
An adz, and a rafter,
A elevated platform, coming down, fell down.

Sweating, and nose treatment, massage,
By bathing, and by smearing;
Making get up, making lie down,
Death through food, through drink.

Child by a lover, and co-wives,
Mother, child, he killed both;
He killed neither, crushing,
Heating, barren, fertile.

Tickling, in taking hold of, a spirit,
Wild animals, and spirits, sent;
Thinking it was him, he gave a blow,
In talking about heaven, and about hell.

Three trees at Āḷavī,
Three others with forest groves;
Do not torture, not as you,
Buttermilk, and salty medicine.

Case details

On one occasion a certain monk was sick. Feeling compassion, the monks praised death to him. He died. They became remorseful and said, “Could it be that we’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion?” They informed the Master, and he said, “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk who was an almsgoer sat down on a bench, crushing a boy who was concealed by a rag. The boy died. The monk became remorseful and thought, “Could it be that I’ve committed an offense entailing expulsion?” He informed the Master, and he said, “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But you should not sit down on a seat without checking it. If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a monk was preparing a seat in a dining hall in an inhabited area. When he took hold of a pestle high up, a second pestle fell down, hitting a boy, who then died. The monk became remorseful … “What was your intention?”

“I didn’t intend it, Master.”

“There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


On one occasion a monk was preparing a seat in a dining hall in an inhabited area. He stepped on the implements belonging to a mortar. They fell and hit a boy, who then died. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


At one time, there was a father and son who had gone forth with the monks. When the time was announced for a certain event, the son said to his father, “Go, Venerable, the Order is waiting for you,” and seizing him by the back, he pushed him. The father fell down and died. The son became remorseful … “What was your intention?”

“I didn’t mean to kill him, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.


At one time, there was a father and son who had gone forth with the monks. When the time was announced for a certain event, the son said to his father, “Go, Venerable, the Order is waiting for you,” and meaning to kill him, he seized him by the back and pushed him. The father fell down and died. The son became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, there was a father and son who had gone forth with the monks. When the time was announced for a certain event, the son said to his father, “Go, Venerable, the Order is waiting for you,” and meaning to kill him, he seized him by the back and pushed him. The father fell down, but did not die. The son became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion, while a monk was eating, some meat got stuck in his throat. A second monk hit him on the neck. The meat came out together with blood, and the monk died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion, while a monk was eating, some meat got stuck in his throat. A second monk, meaning to kill him, hit him on the neck. The meat came out together with blood, and the monk died. The second monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion, while a monk was eating, some meat got stuck in his throat. Another monk, meaning to kill him, hit him on the neck. The meat came out together with blood, but the monk did not die. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk who was an alms-collector received poisoned almsfood. He brought it back and gave the first portion to other monks. They died. He became remorseful … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I didn’t know, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who doesn’t know.


On one occasion a monk gave poison to a second monk with the purpose of investigating it. That monk died. The first monk became remorseful … “What was your intention, monk?”

“My purpose was to investigate it, Master.”

“There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were preparing a site for a dwelling. A monk who was below lifted up a stone. A second monk who was above did not grasp it properly, and it fell on the head of the monk below, who died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were preparing a site for a dwelling. A monk who was below lifted up a stone. A second monk who was above, aiming to kill the monk below, dropped the stone on his head. He died. … He did not die. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were building a wall for a dwelling. A monk who was below lifted up a brick. A second monk who was above did not grasp it properly, and it fell on the head of the monk below, who died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were building a wall for a dwelling. A monk who was below lifted up a brick. A second monk who was above, intending to cause the death of the monk below, dropped the brick on his head. He died. … He did not die. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A monk who was below lifted up an adz. A second monk who was above did not grasp it properly, and it fell on the head of the monk below, who died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A monk who was below lifted up an adz. A second monk who was above, meaning to cause the death of the monk below, dropped the adz on his head. He died. … He did not die. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A monk who was below lifted up a rafter. A second monk who was above did not grasp it properly, and it fell on the head of the monk below, who died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense when it’s unintentional.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī were doing building work. A monk who was below lifted up a rafter. A second monk who was above, meaning to cause the death of the monk below, dropped the rafter on his head. He died. … He did not die. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī, while doing building work, were putting together an elevated platform. A monk said to a second monk, “Put it together while standing here.” He did, and he fell down and died. The first monk became remorseful … “What was your intention, monk?”

“I didn’t mean to kill him, Master.”

“There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī, while doing building work, were putting together an elevated platform. A monk, meaning to kill him, said to a second monk, “Put it together while standing here.” He did, and he fell down and died. … he fell down, but did not die. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk was coming down after making a roof for a dwelling. A second monk said to him, “Come down here.” He did, and he fell down and died. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk was coming down after making a roof for a dwelling. A second monk, meaning to kill him, said to him, “Come down here.” He did, and he fell down and died. … he fell down, but did not die. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk who was plagued by discontent climbed Mount Vulture Peak, jumped off the cliff, and hit a basket-maker. The basket-maker died, and the monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not jump off anything. If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion monks from the group of six climbed Mount Vulture Peak and threw down a stone for fun. It hit a cowherd and killed him. They became remorseful. … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion. But, monks, you should not throw down stones for fun. If you do, you commit an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks made him sweat by heating him. He died. They became remorseful. … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, made him sweat by heating him. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk had a headache. The monks gave him medical treatment through the nose. He died. They became remorseful. … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk had a headache. The monks, meaning to kill him, gave him medical treatment through the nose. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks massaged him. He died. They became remorseful. … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, massaged him. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks bathed him. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, bathed him. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks smeared him with oil. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, smeared him with oil. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks made him get up. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, made him get up. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks made him lie down. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, made him lie down. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks gave him food. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, gave him food. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks gave him a drink. He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a certain monk was sick. The monks, meaning to kill him, gave him a drink. He died. … He did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time a woman whose husband was living away from home became pregnant by a lover. She said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Venerable, please find me a method of abortion.” “All right,” he said, and he gave her a method of abortion. The child died. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, there was a man had two wives, one who was barren and one who was fertile. The barren one said to a monk who was supported by her family, “If the other wife gives birth to a child, Venerable, she’ll become mistress of the whole household. Please find a method of abortion for her.” “All right,” he said, and he did so. The child died, but the mother did not die. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time, there was a man had two wives, one who was barren and one who was fertile. The barren one said to a monk who was supported by her family, “If the other wife gives birth to a child, Venerable, she’ll become mistress of the whole household. Please find a method of abortion for her.” “All right,” he said, and he did so. The mother died, but the child did not die. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


At one time, there was a man had two wives, one who was barren and one who was fertile. The barren one said to a monk who was supported by her family, “If the other wife gives birth to a child, Venerable, she’ll become mistress of the whole household. Please find a method of abortion for her.” “All right,” he said, and he did so. Both died. … Neither died. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a woman who was pregnant said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Venerable, please find me a method of abortion.” “Well then, crush it,” he said. She crushed it and caused an abortion. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a woman who was pregnant said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Venerable, please find me a method of abortion.” “Well then, heat yourself,” he said. She heated herself and caused an abortion. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a barren woman said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Venerable, please find me some medicine to help me become pregnant.” “All right,” he said, and he gave her some medicine. She died. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a fertile woman said to a monk who was supported by her family, “Venerable, please find me some medicine to help me not get pregnant.” “All right,” he said … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion monks from the group of six used their fingers to tickle a monk from the group of seventeen to make him laugh. Being unable to breathe, he died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion monks from the group of seventeen overpowered a monk from the group of six, thinking, “We’ll do a formal procedure against him.” He died. They became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk who was an exorcist killed a spirit. He became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a dwelling inhabited by predatory spirits. The spirits killed him. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a dwelling inhabited by predatory spirits, meaning to kill him. The spirits killed him. … The spirits did not kill him. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a wilderness inhabited by wild animals. The wild animals killed him. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a wilderness inhabited by wild animals, meaning to kill him. The wild animals killed him. … The wild animals did not kill him. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a wilderness inhabited by criminals. The criminals killed him. The first became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk sent a second monk to a wilderness inhabited by criminals, meaning to kill him. The criminals killed him. … The criminals did not kill him. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk killed a particular person, perceiving him as that person … killed another person, perceiving him as that person … killed that person, perceiving him as another person … killed another person, perceiving him as another person. That monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


At one time a monk was possessed by a spirit. Another monk gave him a blow. He died. The other monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


At one time a monk was possessed by a spirit. A second monk, meaning to kill him, gave him a blow. He died. … He did not die. The second monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk gave a talk about heaven to a man of good behavior. He became keen on it and died. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk gave a talk about heaven to a man of good behavior, meaning to kill him. He became keen on it and died. … He became keen on it, but did not die. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk gave a talk about hell to a man bound for hell. He became terrified and died. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion a monk gave a talk about hell to a man bound for hell, meaning to kill him. He became terrified and died. … He became terrified, but did not die. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī, while doing building work, felled a tree. A monk said to a second monk, “Fell it while standing here.” He did. The tree fell on him, and he died. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion the monks of Āḷavī, while doing building work, felled a tree. A monk, meaning to kill a second monk, said to him, “Fell it while standing here.” He did. The tree fell on him, and he died. … The tree fell on him, but he did not die. The first monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion monks from the group of six set fire to a forest grove. Some people were burnt and died. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense for one who is not aiming at death.”


On one occasion monks from the group of six, meaning to cause death, set fire to a forest grove. Some people were burnt and died. … Some people were burnt, but did not die. The monks became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s a serious offense.”


On one occasion a monk went to a place of execution and said to the executioner, “Don’t torture him. Kill him with a single blow.” “All right, Venerable,” he said, and he killed him with a single blow. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a monk went to a place of execution and said to the executioner, “Don’t torture him. Kill him with a single blow.” “I won’t do as you ask,” he said, and he executed him. The monk became remorseful … “There’s no offense entailing expulsion, but there’s an offense of wrong conduct.”


On one occasion a man whose hands and feet had been cut off was in his relatives’ house surrounded by his relations. A monk said to those people, “Would you like him to die?”

“Yes, Venerable.”

“Then you should give him buttermilk.”

They gave him buttermilk and he died. The monk became remorseful … “You have committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


On one occasion a man whose hands and feet had been cut off was in his family’s house, surrounded by his relations. A nun said to those people, “Would you like him to die?”

“Yes, Venerable.”

“Then you should give him salty medicine.”

They gave him salty medicine and he died. The nun became remorseful. … She then informed the nuns, who in turn informed the monks, who then informed the Master. He said, “Monks, that nun has committed an offense entailing expulsion.”


The third offense entailing expulsion is finished.