Middle Collection 10

The Discourse on Mindfulness Meditation

This is what I heard—​ At one time the Buddha was staying in the land of the Kurus, where they have a city called Kammāsadhamma. There the Buddha addressed the monastics: “Monastics!” “Venerable sir”, they replied. The Buddha said this:

“Monastics, this is the path where all things come together as one, to purify sentient beings, to make an end of pain and sadness, to get past sorrow and lamentation, to reach the way, to witness Nibbāna; that is, the four kinds of mindfulness meditation.

What four? Here, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of feelings, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of the mind, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of principles, keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world.

The introduction is finished.

1. Observing the body

1.1. Mindfulness of breathing

And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the body? Here, a monastic has gone to a wilderness, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty building. They sit down in the meditation posture, with their body erect, and focus their mindfulness right there. Mindful, they breath in; mindful, they breath out.

Breathing in deep they clearly know ‘I am breathing in deep’; breathing out deep they clearly know ‘I am breathing out deep’.

Breathing in shallow they clearly know ‘I am breathing in shallow’; breathing out shallow they clearly know ‘I am breathing out shallow’.

They practice like this: ‘I will breathe in experiencing the whole breath’; they practice like this: ‘I will breathe out experiencing the whole breath’.

They practice like this: ‘I will breathe in stilling the breath-energies’; they practice like this: ‘I will breathe out stilling the breath-energies’.

It is like a skilled carpenter or carpenter’s apprentice: when making a deep cut they would clearly know ‘I am making a deep cut’, and when making a shallow cut they would clearly know ‘I am making a shallow cut’.

In the same way, when a monastic is breathing in deep they clearly know ‘I am breathing in deep’; breathing out deep they clearly know ‘I am breathing out deep’.

Breathing in shallow they clearly know ‘I am breathing in shallow’; breathing out shallow they clearly know ‘I am breathing out shallow’.

They practice like this: ‘I will breathe in experiencing the whole breath’; they practice like this: ‘I will breathe out experiencing the whole breath’.

They practice like this: ‘I will breathe in stilling the breath-energies’; they practice like this: ‘I will breathe out stilling the breath-energies’.

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the body.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There is a body’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on mindfulness of breathing is finished.

1.2. The postures

Furthermore, monastics, when a monastic is walking they clearly know ‘I am walking’; when standing they clearly know ‘I am standing’; when sitting they clearly know ‘I am sitting’; and when lying down they clearly know ‘I am lying down’. Whatever posture their body is in, they clearly know it.

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the body.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There is a body’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on postures is finished.

1.3. Situational awareness

Furthermore, when a monastic goes out and returns they act with awareness; when looking to the front and to the side they act with awareness; when bending and extending their limbs they act with awareness; when wearing the robes, and carrying the bowl and outer robe they act with awareness; when eating drinking, chewing, and tasting they act with awareness; when defecating and urinating they act with awareness; when walking, standing, sitting, lying down, waking up, speaking, and keeping silent they act with awareness.

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on situation awareness is finished.

1.4. Paying attention to the repulsive

Furthermore, a monastic examines their own body, up from the soles of the feet, down from the hairs of the head, and surrounded by skin, as full of various kinds of impurities: ‘In this body there are head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, undigested food, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, spit, snot, synovial fluid, and urine.’

It is as if there were a bag with openings at both ends, filled with various kinds of grains, such as hill rice, wheat, mung beans, peas, millet, and white rice. And someone with good eyesight were to open it and examine the contents: ‘This is hill rice, this is wheat, these are mung beans, these are peas, this is millet, and this is white rice.’

In the same way, a monastic examines their own body, up from the soles of the feet, down from the hairs of the head, and surrounded by skin, as full of various kinds of impurities: ‘In this body there is head-hair, body-hair … urine.’

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on paying attention to the repulsive is finished.

1.5. Paying attention to the elements

Furthermore, a monastic examines their own body, whatever its placement or posture, according to the elements: ‘In this body there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

It is as if a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice were to kill a cow and sit down at the crossroads with the meat cut into portions.

In the same way a monastic examines their own body, whatever its placement or posture, according to the elements: ‘In this body there is the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element.’

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on paying attention to the elements is finished.

1.6. The charnel ground contemplations

Furthermore, a monastic, just as if they were to see a corpse thrown in the charnel ground—dead for one, two, or three days, bloated, livid, and festering—they’d compare it with their own body: ‘This body is also of that same nature, that same kind, and cannot go beyond this.’ In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body. (1)

Furthermore, a monastic, just as if they were to see a corpse thrown in a charnel ground being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, herons, dogs, tigers, leopards, jackals, and many kinds of little creatures, they’d compare it with their own body: ‘This body is also of that same nature, that same kind, and cannot go beyond this.’ In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body. (2)

Furthermore, a monastic, just as if they were to see a corpse thrown in a charnel ground, a skeleton with flesh and blood, held together by sinews … (3)

A skeleton without flesh but smeared with blood and held together by sinews … (4)

A skeleton without flesh and blood held together by sinews … (5)

Bones without sinews scattered in every direction—here a hand-bone, there a foot-bone, here a shin-bone, there a thigh-bone, here a hip-bone, there a rib-bone, here a back-bone, there an arm-bone, here a neck-bone, there a jaw- bone, here a tooth, there the skull—they’d compare it with their own body: ‘This body is also of that same nature, that same kind, and cannot go beyond this.’ In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside … This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body. (6)

Furthermore, a monastic, just as if they were to see a corpse thrown in a charnel ground, with white bones, the color of shells … (7)

Bones more than a year old, heaped in a pile … (8)

Bones rotted and crumbled to dust, they’d compare it with their own body: ‘This body is also of that same nature, that same kind, and cannot go beyond this.’ (9)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the body inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the body; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the body.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There is a body’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body.

The section on the charnel ground is finished.

The fourteen observations of the body are finished.

2. Observing the feelings

And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the feelings?

Here, when a monastic has a pleasant feeling they clearly know ‘I have a pleasant feeling’. (1)

When they have a painful feeling they clearly know ‘I have a painful feeling’ . (2)

When they have a neutral feeling they clearly know ‘I have a neutral feeling’ . (3)

When they have a sensual pleasant feeling they clearly know ‘I have a sensual pleasant feeling’. (4)

When they have a spiritual pleasant feeling they clearly know ‘I have a spiritual pleasant feeling’. (5)

When they have a sensual painful feeling they clearly know ‘I have a sensual painful feeling’. (6)

When they have a spiritual painful feeling they clearly know ‘I have a spiritual painful feeling’. (7)

When they have a sensual neutral feeling they clearly know ‘I have a sensual neutral feeling’. (8)

When they have a spiritual neutral feeling they clearly know ‘I have a spiritual neutral feeling’. (9)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the feelings inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the feelings outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the feelings inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the feelings; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the feelings; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the feelings.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are feelings’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of feelings.

The observation of feelings is finished.

3. Observing the mind

And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the mind?

Here, a monastic clearly knows mind with lust as ‘mind with lust’. (1)

They clearly know mind without lust as ‘mind without lust’. (2)

They clearly know mind with anger as ‘mind with anger’. (3)

They clearly know mind without anger as ‘mind without anger’. (4)

They clearly know mind with delusion as ‘mind with delusion’. (5)

They clearly know mind without delusion as ‘mind without delusion’. (6)

They clearly know the contracted mind as ‘contracted mind’. (7)

They clearly know the scattered mind as ‘scattered mind’. (8)

They clearly know the mind grown great as ‘mind grown great’. (9)

They clearly know the mind not grown great as ‘mind not grown great’. (10)

They clearly know surpassed mind as ‘surpassed mind’. (11)

They clearly know unsurpassed mind as ‘unsurpassed mind’. (12)

They clearly know the mind in samādhi as ‘mind in samādhi’. (13)

They clearly know the mind not in samādhi as ‘mind not in samādhi’. (14)

They clearly know the freed mind as ‘freed mind’. (15)

They clearly know the unfreed mind as ‘unfreed mind’. (16)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the mind inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the mind outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the mind inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the mind; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the mind; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the mind.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There is the mind’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This too is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the mind.

The observation of the mind is finished.

4. Observing the principles

4.1. The hindrances

And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles? Here, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five hindrances. And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five hindrances?

Here, a monastic who has sensual desire clearly knows ‘I have sensual desire’; when they don’t have sensual desire they clearly know ‘I don’t have sensual desire’; and they clearly know how sensual desire that has not arisen comes to arise; how sensual desire that has arisen comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned sensual desire comes to not rise again in the future. (1)

When they have ill will they clearly know ‘I have ill will’; when they don’t have ill will they clearly know ‘I don’t have ill will’; and they clearly know how ill will that has not arisen comes to arise; how ill will that has arisen comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned ill will comes to not rise again in the future. (2)

When they have dullness & drowsiness they clearly know ‘I have dullness & drowsiness’; when they don’t have dullness & drowsiness they clearly know ‘I don’t have dullness & drowsiness’; and they clearly know how dullness & drowsiness that has not arisen comes to arise; how dullness & drowsiness that has arisen comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned dullness & drowsiness comes to not rise again in the future. (3)

When they have restlessness and remorse they clearly know ‘I have restlessness and remorse’; when they don’t have restlessness and remorse they clearly know, ‘I don’t have restlessness and remorse’; and they clearly know how restlessness and remorse that has not arisen comes to arise; how restlessness and remorse that has arisen comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned restlessness and remorse comes to not rise again in the future. (4)

When they have doubt they clearly know ‘I have doubt’; when they don’t have doubt they clearly know ‘I don’t have doubt’; and they clearly know how doubt that has not arisen comes to arise; how doubt that has arisen comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned doubt comes to not rise again in the future. (5)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the principles.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are principles’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five hindrances.

The section on the hindrances is finished.

4.2. The aggregates

Furthermore, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five aggregates. And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five aggregates?

Here, a monastic understands: ‘Such is form, such is the origin of form, such is the ending of form; such is feeling, such is the origin of feeling, such is the ending of feeling; such is perception, such is the origin of perception, such is the ending of perception; such are choices, such is the origin of choices, such is the ending of choices; such is consciousness, such is the origin of consciousness, such is the ending of consciousness.’

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the principles.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are principles’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the five aggregates.

The section on the aggregates is finished.

4.3. The sense fields

Furthermore, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the six internal and external sense fields. And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles of the six internal and external sense fields?

Here, a monastic clearly knows the eye, sights, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (1)

They clearly know the ear, sounds, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (2)

They clearly know the nose, smells, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (3)

They clearly know the tongue, tastes, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (4)

They clearly know the body, touches, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (5)

They clearly know the mind, mental phenomena, and the fetter that arises dependent on both of these; they clearly know how the fetter that has not arisen comes to arise; how the arisen fetter comes to be abandoned; and how the abandoned fetter comes to not rise again in the future. (6)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the principles.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are principles’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the six internal and external sense fields.

The section on the sense fields is finished.

4.4. The factors of awakening

Furthermore, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the seven factors of awakening. And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles of the seven factors of awakening?

Here, a monastic who has the awakening factor of mindfulness clearly knows ‘I have the awakening factor of mindfulness’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of mindfulness they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of mindfulness’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of mindfulness comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of mindfulness becomes perfected through development. (1)

When they have the awakening factor of investigation of principles they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of investigation of principles’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of investigation of principles they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of investigation of principles’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of investigation of principles comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of investigation of principles becomes perfected through development. (2)

When they have the the awakening factor of energy they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of energy’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of energy they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of energy’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of energy comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of energy becomes perfected through development. (3)

When they have the the awakening factor of rapture they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of rapture’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of rapture they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of rapture’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of rapture comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of rapture becomes perfected through development. (4)

When they have the the awakening factor of tranquility they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of tranquility’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of tranquility they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of tranquility’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of tranquility comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of tranquility becomes perfected through development. (5)

When they have the the awakening factor of samādhi they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of samādhi’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of samādhi they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of samādhi’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of samādhi comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of samādhi becomes perfected through development. (6)

When they have the the awakening factor of equanimity they clearly know ‘I have the awakening factor of equanimity’; when they don’t have the awakening factor of equanimity they clearly know ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of equanimity’; they clearly know how the unarisen awakening factor of equanimity comes to arise; and they clearly know how the arisen awakening factor of equanimity becomes perfected through development. (7)

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the principles.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are principles’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the seven factors of awakening.

The section on the factors of awakening is finished.

4.5. The truths

Furthermore, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the four noble truths. And how, monastics, does a monastic meditate by observing an aspect of the principles of the four noble truths?

Here, a monastic understands in accordance with reality ‘This is suffering’ … ‘This is the origin of suffering’ … ‘This is the cessation of suffering’ … ‘This is the practice that leads to the cessation of suffering’.

The first recitation section is finished.

4.5.1. The noble truth of suffering

And what, monastics, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering; old age is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and depression are suffering; association with the disliked is suffering; separation from the liked is suffering; not getting what you want is suffering; in brief, the five grasping aggregates are suffering.

And what, monastics, is birth? The birth, conception, arrival, appearance, manifestation of the aggregates, and gaining of the sense fields of the various sentient beings into the various classes of sentient beings: this is called birth. (1)

And what, monastics, is old age? The old age, aging, broken teeth, graying hair, and wrinkled skin of the various sentient beings in the various classes of sentient beings: this is called old age. (2)

And what, monastics, is death? The passing away, falling away, breakup, disappearance, mortality, death, completing the time, breaking up of the aggregates, laying down of the corpse, cutting off the life faculty of the various sentient beings from the various classes of sentient beings: this is called death. (3)

And what, monastics, is sorrow? The sorrow, sorrowing, sorrowfulness, inner sorrow, deep inner sorrow of someone who is afflicted by some kind of misfortune, or who has some kind of painful experience: this is called sorrow. (4)

And what, monastics, is lamentation? The lament, lamenting, lamentation, the state of lamenting, the state of lamentation of someone who is afflicted by some kind of misfortune, or who has some kind of painful experience: this is called sorrow. (5)

And what, monastics, is suffering? The bodily pain, bodily unpleasantness, painful and unpleasant feeling arising from bodily contact: this is called pain. (6)

And what, monastics, is sadness? The mental pain, mental unpleasantness, painful and unpleasant feeling arising from mind contact: this is called pain. (7)

And what, monastics, is depression? The depression of anyone who is afflicted by some kind of misfortune, or who has some kind of painful experience: this is called depression. (8)

And what, monastics, is ‘association with the disliked is suffering’? Here, coming together, gathering, togetherness, being mixed up with unwished for, unwanted, unpleasing sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, and mental phenomena; or with those who desire your loss, harm, discomfort, and continued entrapment: this is called ‘association with the disliked is suffering’. (9)

And what, monastics, is ‘separation from the liked is suffering’? Here, not coming together, not gathering, untogetherness, not being mixed up with wished for, wanted, pleasing sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, and mental phenomena; or with those who desire your benefit, welfare, comfort, and release from entrapment, whether mother, father, brother, sister, friend, companion, relatives and family members: this is called ‘separation from the liked is suffering’. (10)

And what, monastics, is ‘not getting what you want is suffering’? Sentient beings, though subject to birth, wish: ‘Oh! May we not be subject to birth, may birth not come to us!’ But you cannot get this by wishing … Though subject to old age, they wish‘Oh! May we not be subject to old age, may old age not come to us!’ But you cannot get this by wishing … Though subject to affliction, they wish ‘Oh! May we not be subject to affliction, may affliction not come to us!’ But you cannot get this by wishing … Though subject to death, they wish‘Oh! May we not be subject to death, may death not come to us!’ But you cannot get this by wishing … Though subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and depression, they wish ‘Oh! May we not be subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and depression, may subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and depression not come to us!’ But you cannot get this by wishing: this is ‘not getting what you want is suffering’. (11)

And what, monastics, is ‘in brief, the five grasping aggregates are suffering’? These are the grasping aggregates of form, feeling, perception, choices, and consciousness. This is called ‘in brief, the five grasping aggregates are suffering’.

This is called the noble truth of suffering.

4.5.2. The noble truth of the origin of suffering

And what, monastics, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? The craving that leads to rebirth in future lives; bound up with delight and lust, it delights in this or that state of existence. That is, sensual craving, craving to be reborn, and craving to be annihilated.

But where, monastics, does that craving arise, and where does it settle? That craving arises and settles on whatever in the world seems nice and pleasant.

And what in the world seems nice and pleasant? The eye in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles. The ear … nose … tongue … body … mind in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Sights … sounds … smells … tastes … touches … mental phenomena in the world seem nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Eye-consciousness … ear-consciousness … nose-consciousness … tongue- consciousness … body-consciousness … mind-consciousness in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Eye-contact … ear-contact … nose-contact … tongue-contact … body-contact … mind-contact in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Feeling born of eye-contact … Feeling born of ear-contact … Feeling born of nose-contact … Feeling born of tongue-contact … Feeling born of body-contact … Feeling born of mind-contact in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Perception of sights … perception of sounds … perception of smells … perception of tastes … perception of touches … perception of mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Intentions regarding sights … intentions regarding sounds … intentions regarding smells … intentions regarding tastes … intentions regarding touches … intentions regarding mental phenomena in the world seem nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Craving for sights … craving for sounds … craving for smells … craving for tastes … craving for touches … craving for mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Thinking of sights … thinking of sounds … thinking of smells … thinking of tastes … thinking of touches … thinking of mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles.

Exploring sights … exploring sounds … exploring smells … exploring tastes … exploring touches … exploring mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving arises and settles. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.

4.5.3. The noble truth of the cessation of suffering

And what, monastics, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering? It is the fading away and cessation, giving up, relinquishment, letting go, and non-attachment to that very same craving, without anything left over.

But where, monastics, is that craving abandoned, and where does it cease? That craving is abandoned and ceases on whatever in the world seems nice and pleasant.

And what in the world seems nice and pleasant? The eye in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases. The ear … nose … tongue … body … mind in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Sights … sounds … smells … tastes … touches … mental phenomena in the world seem nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Eye-consciousness … ear-consciousness … nose-consciousness … tongue- consciousness … body-consciousness … mind-consciousness in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Eye-contact … ear-contact … nose-contact … tongue-contact … body-contact … mind-contact in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Feeling born of eye-contact … Feeling born of ear-contact … Feeling born of nose-contact … Feeling born of tongue-contact … Feeling born of body-contact … Feeling born of mind-contact in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Perception of sights … perception of sounds … perception of smells … perception of tastes … perception of touches … perception of mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Intentions regarding sights … intentions regarding sounds … intentions regarding smells … intentions regarding tastes … intentions regarding touches … intentions regarding mental phenomena in the world seem nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Craving for sights … craving for sounds … craving for smells … craving for tastes … craving for touches … craving for mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Thinking of sights … thinking of sounds … thinking of smells … thinking of tastes … thinking of touches … thinking of mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases.

Exploring sights … exploring sounds … exploring smells … exploring tastes … exploring touches … exploring mental phenomena in the world seems nice and pleasant, and it is there that craving is abandoned and ceases. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.

4.5.4. The noble truth of the path

And what, monastics, is the noble truth of the practice leading to the cessation of suffering? It is precisely this noble eightfold path, that is, right view, right motivation, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right samādhi.

And what is right view? Knowledge about suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the practice leading to the cessation of suffering. This is called ‘right view’. (1)

And what is right motivation? The motivation of renunciation, of non-ill-will, and of non-harming. This is called ‘right motivation’. (2)

And what is right speech? Refraining from lying, divisive speech, harsh speech, and meaningless speech. This is called ‘right speech’. (3)

And what is right action? Refraining from killing living beings, from stealing, and from sexual misconduct. This is called ‘right action’. (4)

And what is right livelihood? Here, a noble disciple abandons wrong livelihood and makes their living by right livelihood. This is called ‘right livelihood’. (5)

And what is right effort? Here, a monastic generates enthusiasm, tries, makes an effort, exerts the mind, and strives so that bad, unskillful qualities that have not arisen do not arise. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that bad, unskillful qualities that have arisen are abandoned. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that skillful qualities that have not arisen do arise. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that skillful qualities that have arisen remain, are not lost, but increase, mature, and are perfected by development. This is called ‘right effort’. (6)

And what is right mindfulness? Here, a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the body, keen, situation-aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of feelings, keen, situation-aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of the mind, keen, situation-aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. They meditate by observing an aspect of principles, keen, situation-aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. This is called ‘right mindfulness’. (7)

And what, monastics, is right samādhi? Here, a monastic, quite secluded from the senses, secluded from unskillful qualities, enters and remains in the first jhāna, which has initial and sustained application of mind, and the rapture and bliss born of seclusion. With the stilling of initial and sustained application, they enter and remain in the second jhāna, where there is internal clarity and confidence, and the heart becomes one, without initial and sustained application, but with the rapture and bliss born of samādhi. And with the fading away of rapture, they enter and remain in the third jhāna, where they meditate with equanimity, mindful and aware, personally experiencing the bliss of which the noble ones declare, ‘Equanimous and mindful, one meditates in bliss’. With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and the ending of former happiness and sadness, they enter and remain in the fourth jhāna, without pleasure or pain, with pure equanimity and mindfulness. This is called ‘right samādhi’. (8)

This is called the noble truth of the practice leading to the cessation of suffering.

In this way they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles outside; they meditate by observing an aspect of the principles inside and outside.

They meditate by observing the reasons for the origination of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the dissolution of the principles; they meditate by observing the reasons for the origination and dissolution of the principles.

Or mindfulness is established that ‘There are principles’, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness. They meditate independent, not grasping at anything in the world. This is how a monastic meditates by observing an aspect of the principles with respect to the four noble truths.

The section on the truths is finished.

The observation of principles is finished.

Monastics, anyone who develops the four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for seven years may expect one of two results: final enlightenment in this very life, or if there is anything left over, non-return.

Let alone seven years, anyone who develops the four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for six years … five years … four years … three years … two years … one year … Let alone one year, anyone who develops the four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for seven months may expect one of two results: final enlightenment in this very life, or if there is anything left over, non-return. Let alone seven months, anyone who develops the four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for six months … five months … four months … three months … two months … one month … half a month … Let alone half a month, anyone who develops the four kinds of mindfulness meditation in this way for seven days may expect one of two results: final enlightenment in this very life, or if there is anything left over, non-return.

‘Monastics, this is the path where all things come together as one, to purify sentient beings, to get past sorrow and lamentation, to make an end of pain and sadness, to reach the way, to witness Nibbāna; that is, the four kinds of mindfulness meditation.’ That is what I said, and this is why I said it.”

This is what the Buddha said. Pleased at heart, the monastics rejoiced in the Buddha’s words.

The discourse on mindfulness meditation is finished.

The end of the first chapter, the Fundamental Method.