Long Discourses

Pāṭika Chapter

33. The Recital

Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was once making a tour in the country of the Mallas, accompanied by a great company of the brethren, numbering about five hundred. And he arrived at Pāvā the Malla capital. There he resided in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith.

Now at that time a new mote-hall of the Pāvā Mallas named Ubbhaṭaka had not long been built, and had not been occupied by recluse or brahmin or any human being whatever. And the Pāvā Mallas heard that the Exalted One on his tour had arrived with his following at Pāvā and was staying in Cunda’s mango-grove. And they went to visit him, and saluting him sat down at one side. So seated they said to him: —

‘Lord, a new mote-hall named Ubbhaṭaka has lately been built by us Mallas of Pāvā, and no recluse or brahmin or any human being whatever has yet occupied it. Let, lord, the Exalted One be the first to make use of it. That is has first been used by the Exalted One will be for the lasting good and happiness of the Pāvā Mallas.’

The Exalted One by his silence assented.

When they marked his assent, they rose and saluted him, passing round by his right, and went to the mote-hall. They spread the whole hall with carpets, arranged seats, put a bowl of water ready, hung up an oil lamp, and returned to the Exalted One. Saluting him and standing at one side they said: ‘The whole mote-hall, lord, is spread with carpets, seats are arranged, a bowl of water has been placed ready, a lamp is hung up. And now, lord, whenever the Exalted One deems the time is fit. … ’

Then the Exalted One dressed himself and taking bowl and robe he went with the company of brethren to the mote-hall. On arriving he bathed his feet, and entered the hall, and took his seat facing the east, leaning against the central pillar. The brethren also bathed their feet and entered the hall ranging themselves against the western wall and facing the east, behind the Exalted One. The Pāvā Mallas also bathed their feet and entered the hall, ranging themselves against the eastern wall and facing the west with the Exalted One before them. Then the Exalted One far into the night discoursed on the doctrine to the Pāvā Mallas, instructing, enlightening, inciting and inspiring them. And then he dismissed them saying: ‘Lovely, Vāseṭṭhas is the night. Do ye deem it time?’

‘We do, lord,’ responded the Pāvā Mallas. And rising they saluted the Exalted One by the right and departed.

And presently the Exalted One, surveying the company of brethren wrapped in silence wherever they sat, called to the venerable Sāriputta: ‘There is an absence, Sāriputta, of sloth and torpor in the company of brethren. Let a religious discourse occur to thee, my back is aching, I will stretch it.’

‘So be it, lord,’ replied Sāriputta. Then the Exalted One, letting his robe be folded in four, took up the lion-posture on his right side, placing his feet one in the curve of the other, mindful and deliberate, having mentally noted a time for arousing himself.

Now at that time the Nigaṇṭha, Nāthaputta, had just died at Pāvā. After his death the Nigaṇṭhas became divided, falling into opposite parties and into strife, disputes broke out and they went on wounding each other with wordy weapons:—Thou dost not confess this Norm and Discipline! I do confess it! Wilt thou confess it? Thou are in the wrong! I am practising it rightly! I am speaking to the point; thou art off the point! Thou sayest last what should be said first, and first what should come last! What thou hast so long excogitated is quite upset! Thy challenge is taken up; thou’rt proved to be wrong! Begone to get rid of thy opinion, or disentangle thyself if thou canst! Truly the Nigaṇṭhas, followers of Nāthaputta, were out methinks to kill. Even the lay disciples of the white robe, who followed Nāthaputta, showed themselves shocked, repelled and indignant at the Nigaṇṭhas, so badly was their doctrine and discipline set forth and imparted, so ineffectual was it for guidance, so little conducive to peace, imparted as it had been by one who was not supremely enlightened, and now wrecked as it was of his support and without a protector.

Then the venerable Sāriputta addressed the brethren: The Nigaṇṭha, Nāthaputta, friends, has just died at Pāvā. Since his death the Nigaṇṭhas have become divided and have fallen into opposite parties and into strife. Disputes have broken out and they go on wounding each other with wordy weapons … so badly has their doctrine and discipline been set forth … and now wrecked of his support and without a protector.

But to us, friends, the Norm has been well set forth and imparted by the Exalted One. It is effectual for guidance, conducive to self-mastery, and is imparted by one perfectly enlightened. Herein there should be a chanting by all in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Ones

What is the single doctrine?

All beings persist through causes.

All beings persist through conditions.

This ‘single doctrine,’ friends, has been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Twos

There are double doctrines, friends, which are perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting in concord … for the good … of devas and of men:—which are the doubles?

Mind and body.

Ignorance and craving for rebirth.

False opinion as to (a) rebirth, (b) no rebirth.

Unconscientiousness and indiscretion.

Conscientiousness and discretion.

Contumacy and friendship with evil.

Suavity and friendship with good.

Proficiency as to offences and restoration from them.

Proficiency as to attainments and recovery from them (viz.: as to Jhāna).

Proficiency in elements and in understanding them.

Proficiency in the (twelve) spheres of sense and in the (twelve factors of the) causal formula.

Proficiency in assigning specific causes, and in eliminating elements that are not causal [in a specific effect].

Rectitude and shamefacedness.

Patience and gentleness.

Mildness of speech and courtesy.

Kindness and love.

Absence of mind and want of intelligence.

Mindfulness and intelligence.

Unguardedness of faculties and intemperance in diet.

Guardedness of faculties and temperance in diet.

The powers of judging and of cultivation.

The powers of mindfulness and concentration.

Calm and insight.

The causes [or signs] of calm and of mental grasp.

Mental grasp and balance.

Attainment in conduct and in [sound] belief.

Failure in conduct and in [sound] belief.

Purity in conduct and in belief.

Purity in belief and the struggle according to the belief one holds.

Agitation over agitating conditions and the systematic exertion of one [thus] agitated.

Discontent in meritorious acts and perseverance in exertion.

The higher wisdom and emancipation.

Knowledge how to extirpate and knowledge how to prevent recrudescence.

These, friends, are the Double Doctrines perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting by all in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Threes

There are Triple Doctrines perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting in concord even by all, not a wrangling … Which are these?

Three bad ‘roots’ (or conditions):—greed, hate, dullness.

Three good ‘roots’:—disinterestedness, love; intelligence.

Three kinds of evil conduct, to wit, in act, word and thought.

Three kinds of fine conduct, to wit, in act, word and thought.

Three kinds of bad thoughts, to wit, thoughts of sense-desire, of enmity, of cruelty.

Three kinds of good thoughts, to wit, thoughts of renunciation, of amity, of kindness.

Three kinds of bad purposes … [as in v.].

Three kinds of good purposes … [as in vi.].

Three kinds of bad notions … [as in v.].

Three kinds of good notions … [as in vi.].

Three bad elements, to wit, of sense-desire, enmity, cruelty.

Three good elements, … [as in vi.].

Other three elements, to wit, the sphere of sense-desire, that of the brahma-world, that of the higher heavens.

Other three elements, to wit, the sphere of the brahma-world, that of the higher heavens, that of cessation.

Other three elements, to wit, low, medium and sublime spheres.

Three [directions of] craving, to wit, craving for the pleasure of this life, craving for life to come, craving for life to end.

Other three [directions of] craving, to wit, craving for life in the spheres of sense, for life in the brahma (rūpa) world, for life in the higher worlds.

Other three [directions of] craving:—craving for life in the lower spheres, for life in the higher spheres, for cessation.

Three ‘fetters,’ to wit, the false opinion concerning individuality, doubt, inverted [judgment] as to rule and ritual.

Three intoxicants, to wit, the poisons of sensuality, future life and ignorance.

Three [planes of] rebirths, to wit, the universe of sense-desire, that of the lower and that of the higher worlds.

Three quests:—that of sensuous enjoyment, that of life renewed, that of [problems connected with] the religious life.

Three forms [of conceit], to wit (1), ‘I am better than … ,’ (2) ‘I am equal to … ,’ (3) ‘I am worse than … ’

Three periods, to wit, past, future, present.

Three limits, to wit, individuality, its rising, its cessation.

Three [modes of] feelings, to wit, pleasant, painful and neutral feeling.

Three states of suffering, to wit, pain, conditioned existence, change.

Three ‘heaps,’ to wit, that of wrong-doing entailing immutable evil results, that of well-doing entailing immutable good results, and that of everything not so determined.

Three doubts, to wit, doubts, perplexity, inability to decide, dissatisfaction concerning past, future and present.

Three things which a Buddha has not to guard against: a Buddha, friends, is pure in conduct whether of act, or speech, or thought. There is no misdeed of any kind concerning which he must take good care lest another should come to know of it.

Three obstacles, to wit, lust, hate, illusion.

Three fires, to wit, lust, hate, illusion.

Other three fires, to wit, the fire of the worshipful, the fire of the head of the household, the fire of those worthy of offerings.

Threefold classification of matter, to wit, as visible and resisting, as invisible and resisting, as invisible and unresisting.

Three accumulations, to wit, complexes of merit, of demerit, of influctuate [results].

Three kinds of persons, to wit, the learner, the adept, he who is neither.

Three kinds of seniors, to wit, an aged layman, an eminent bhikkhu, a bhikkhu officially ranked as ‘senior.’

Three bases by merit accomplished, to wit, the bases composed of giving, of virtue, of study.

Three bases for reproof, to wit, that which has been seen, that which has been heard, that which one suspects.

Three uprisings of desires connected with sense: (1) There are beings, friends, whose sense-desires are bound up with the objects thereof, and they are in subjection to such desire. Such are human beings, some devas and some reborn to [one of the four] evil destinies. (2) There are beings who have desires for that which [they have] creates; such are the devas so called (Nimmānarati), who having created one thing after another are in subjection to such desires. (3) There are beings who have desires for the creations of others; and get these into their power; such are the devas so called (Paranimmita-vāsavatti).

Three happy rebirths:—(1) There are beings, friends, who [in a former birth] having continually produced, dwell now in happiness; such are the devas of the Brahmā group. (2) There are beings who are soaked and steeped in happiness, full of it, pervaded by it. They from time to time pour forth ecstatic utterance saying: ‘Oh the bliss of it!’ Ah what happiness!’ Such are the Radiant Devas. (3) There are beings who are similarly filled with happiness … pervaded by it; they, serenely blissful, experience only sublime happiness. Such are the Luminous Devas.

Three kinds of knowledge: that of the learner, that of the adept, that of him who is neither.

Other three kinds of knowledge:—knowledge that is thought out, knowledge that is learned (from another), knowledge that is gained by [cultural] development.

Three kinds of armour:—that of doctrine learnt, that of detachment, that of knowledge.

Three faculties:—that of coming to know the unknown, that of knowing, that of perfected knowledge.

Three kinds of vision, to wit, the eye of flesh, the heavenly eye, the eye of insight.

Three courses of training, to wit, the higher morality, the higher mental training, the higher insight.

Three [branches of] culture, to wit, the culture of sense-impressions, of mind, of insight.

Three supreme things, to wit, that of vision, that of procedure, that of freedom.

Three species of concentration: —that of mental application followed by sustained thought, that of sustained thought without mental application, that of concentration without either.

Other three species of concentration:—concentrative insight into ‘emptiness,’ ‘signlessness,’ ‘end of baneful longing.’

Three purities, to wit, of action, speech and thought.

Three factors of the anchorite, to wit, a certain attitude respecting conduct, respecting speech, respecting thought.

Three proficiencies, to wit, proficiency as to progress, regress, and the means of success.

Three intoxications, to wit, the pride of health, the ride of youth, the pride of life.

Three dominant influences [on effort]: to wit, the influence of self-[criticism], the influence of the community, the influence of spiritual things.

Three bases of discourse, to wit (1) discourse may be concerned with the past:—’such things were in the past’; (2) discourse may be concerned with the future:—’so will it be in time to come,’ or (3) with the present:—’so has it come to pass at the present day.’

Three branches of wisdom, to wit, knowledge of one’s former lives, knowledge of the decease and rebirth of beings, knowledge in the destruction of the ‘intoxicants.’

Three states, to wit, deva-consciousness, the divine states, the Ariyan state.

Three wonders, to wit, the wonder of mystic power, the wonder of manifestation, the wonder of education.

These, friends, are the Triple Doctrines perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting by all in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Fours

Fourfold doctrines, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees, the Arahant, Buddha supreme. Here should be a chanting in concord by all, not a wrangling … for … the happiness of devas and of men. Which are these?

Four applications of mindfulness, to wit:—Herein, friends, let a brother as to the body … as to feelings … as to thoughts … as to ideas continue so to look on these [severally and in order], that he remains ardent, self-possessed and mindful, overcoming both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

Four supreme efforts, to wit:—Herein, friends, a brother, in order that unrisen wrong and wicked ideas may not arise … in order that wrong and wicked ideas if arisen, may be put away … in order that unrisen good ideas may arise … in order that good ideas, if arisen, may persist, may be clarified, multiplied, expanded, developed, perfected, generates will endeavours, stirs up energy, makes firm his mind, struggles.

Four stages to efficiency (iddhi). Herein, friends, a brother develops the stage which is characterized by (1) the mental co-efficient of an effort of purposive concentration; (2) by the mental co-efficient of an effort of intellectual concentration; (3) by the mental co-efficient of an effort of energized concentration; (4) by the mental co-efficient of an effort of investigating concentration.

Four Jhānas. Herein, friends, a brother, aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, enters into and abides in the First Jhāna, wherein there is initiative and sustained thought, which is born of solitude, and is full of zest and ease. Secondly, when suppressing initiative and sustained thought, he enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna, which is self-evoked, born of concentration, full of zest and ease, in that, set free from initial and sustained thought, the mind grows calm and sure, dwelling on high. Thirdly, when a brother, no longer fired with zest, abides calmly contemplative, while mindful and self-possessed he feel in his body that ease whereof Ariyans declare: He that is calmly contemplative and aware, he dwelleth at ease, so does he enter into and abide in the Third Jhāna. Fourthly, by putting aside ease and by putting aside malaise, by the passing away of the joy and the sorrow he used to feel, he enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhāna, rapture of utter purity of mindfulness and equanimity, wherein neither ease is felt nor any ill.

Four developments of concentration, to wit, that which when practised and expanded, conduces to (1) pleasure in this life; (2) acquisition of intuition and insight; (3) mindfulness and well-awareness; (4) destruction of spiritual intoxicants. Which are these severally? (1) is the Fourfold Jhāna; (2) is when a brother attends to the sensation of light, sustains the perception of daylight, and attends to light no less in the nighttime, and thus, with open and unmuffled consciousness, creates a radiant luminous mind; (3) is the understanding of each feeling, or perception or thought, as they severally arise, remain present and vanish; (4) is the keeping watchover the five aggregates of grasping, as they rise and cease:—‘This is material … this is the appearance of something material … this is the vanishing, and so on.’

Four ‘infinitudes,’ to wit:—Herein, brethren, a brother lets his mind pervade one quarter of the world with thoughts of love … pity … sympathy … in joy … equanimity, and so the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth. And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around and everywhere does he continue to pervade with heart … far-reaching, grown great and beyond measure, free from anger and ill-will.

Four Jhānas of Arūpa-consciousness, to wit: —Herein, brethren, a brother, by passing beyond the consciousness of matter, by the dying out of the sensation of resistance, by paying no heed to the idea of difference, at the thought: ‘space is infinite!’ attains to and abides in the conceptual sphere of space as infinite. (2) Having wholly transcended this, at the thought: ‘Infinite is consciousness!’ he attains to and abides in the conceptual sphere of consciousness as infinite. (3) Having wholly transcended this, at the thought: ‘It is nothing!’ he attains to and abides in the conceptual sphere of nothingness. (4) Having wholly transcended this, he attains to and abides in the sphere of neither consciousness nor unconsciousness.

Four Bases of Conduct: —Herein, brethren, a brother judges that a certain thing is to be habitually pursued, another thing is to be endured, another to be avoided, another to be suppressed.

Four Ariyan lineages. Herein, brethren, a brother is content with whatever robes [he may have], commends contentment of this kind, and does not try to gain robes in improper unsuitable ways. And he is not dismayed if he gain no robe, but when he has gained one, he is not greedy, nor infatuated nor overwhelmed; he wears it heedful lest he incur evil and understanding its object. Finally, by this contentment as to any garment, he neither is puffed up nor disparages others. Now he that is expert, not slothful, heedful, mindful, is called, brethren, a brother who is true to the ancient distinguished lineage of the Ariyans. The same is he who is similarly content with his alms, and with his lodging. Lastly, brethren, the brother who, having the love both of eliminating on the one hand, and of developing on the other, loves both to eliminate and to develop, in loving both, neither is puffed up, nor disparages others. He that is herein expert, not slothful, heedful, mindful, is called a brother who is true to the ancient distinguished lineage of the Ariyans.

Four exertions, to wit, self-control, eliminating, developing, safe-guarding. What is the first? Herein, brethren, when a brother sees an object with the eye, and is not entranced by the general appearance or the details of it, but sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for bad, wicked states, covetousness, dejection to flow in over him were he to dwell unrestrained as to the faculty of sight, and to keep watch over that faculty, and attains to mastery over it … and similarly as to the other four senses and mind, such an effort is called exertion in self-control. (2) What is exertion in elimination? Herein, brethren, a brother, when a sensual, malign, or cruel thought has arisen, will not endure it, but puts it away, suppresses, exterminates it and makes it non-existent. Such an exertion is called exertion in elimination. (3) What is exertion in developing? Herein, brethren, a brother cultivates each of the seven factors of enlightenment which are based upon detachment, upon passionlessness, upon cessation, and wherein is maturity of self-surrender. This is called exertion in development. (4) What is exertion in safe-guarding? Herein, brethren, a brother keeps pure and genuine an auspicious object of concentrated imagination when it has arisen, [such as] one of the contemplations of foul things. This is called exertion in safe-guarding.

Four knowledges, to wit, knowledge of the Doctrine, knowledge in its corollaries, knowledge of what is in another’s consciousness, and popular knowledge.

Other four knowledges, to wit: knowledge regarding suffering, genesis, cessation, path.

Four factors in ‘Stream-attainment,’ to wit, intercourse with the good, hearing the good doctrine, systematized attention, practice in those things that lead up to the doctrine and its corollaries.

Four factors of his state who has attained the stream. Herein, brethren, the Ariyan disciple has an unshakeable faith (1) in the Buddha:—’so he too, the Exalted One, is Arahant, supremely enlightened, full of wisdom and goodness, Blessed One, world-knower, peerless driver and tamer of men, teacher of devas and men, Buddha, Exalted One!’; (2) in the Norm:—Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is the Norm, effective in this life and without delay, bidding us come and see, leading us onward, to be known by the wise as a personal experience; (3) in the Order:— Well practised is the Order of the Exalted One’s disciples, in uprightness, method and propriety, namely, the four pairs of persons, the eight classes of individuals. This is the Order of the Exalted One’s disciples, to whom offerings and ministering should be made, and gifts and reverent greeting as unto the supreme field of merit throughout the world; (4) endowed is it with virtues lovely to the Ariyans, unbroken and flawless, consistently practised, unblemished, making men free, commended by the wise, unperverted and conducing to rapt concentration.

Four fruits of the life of a recluse, to wit, the fruit of [the fourfold path, i.e. of] Stream-attainment, of the Once-returner, of the Never-returner, of Arahantship.

Four elements, to wit, the extended [or earthy], the cohesive [or watery], the hot [or fiery], the mobile [or aerial] element.

Four supports [or foods], to wit, solid [bodily] food, whether gross or subtle, contact, as the second, motive or purpose as third, consciousness [in rebirth] as fourth.

Four stations of consciousness. Brethren, when consciousness gaining a foothold persists, it is either in connection with material qualities, or with [a co-efficient of] feeling, or perception or volitional complexes. In connection with any of these as an instrument, as an object of thought, as a platform, as a set of enjoyment, it attains to growth, increase, abundance.

Four ways of going astray, to wit, through partiality, hate, illusion, fear.

Four uprisings of craving. Brethren, craving arises in a brother because of raiment, alms, lodging, and dainty foods.

Four rates of progress, to wit, when progress is difficult and intuition slow, when progress is difficult but intuition comes swiftly, when progress is easy, but intuition is slow, and when progress is easy, and intuition comes swiftly.

Other four modes of progress, to wit, exercise without endurance, with endurance, with taming (of faculties), with calm.

Four divisions of doctrine, to wit, [when the highest things are attained by an attitude of] (1) disinterestedness, or (2) amity, or (3) perfect mindfulness, or (4) perfect concentration.

Four religious undertakings:—(1) one that brings present suffering and in the future painful consequences; (2) one that brings present suffering and in the future happy consequences; (3) one that brings present pleasure and in the future painful consequences; (4) one that brings present happiness and in the future happy consequences.

Four bodies of doctrine, to wit, morals, concentrative exercise, insight, emancipation.

Four powers, to wit, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight.

Four resolves, to wit, to gain insight, to win truth, to surrender [all evil], to master self.

Four modes of answering questions, to wit, the catego4rical reply, the discriminating reply, the counter-question reply, the waived question.

Four kinds of action, to wit, that which is dark with dark result, that which is bright with bright result, mixed, with mixed result, that which is neither, with neither kind of result, and conduces to the destruction of karma (action).

Four matters to be realized, to wit, former lives, to be realized by clear mentality; decease and rebirth, to be realized by the ‘heavenly eye’; the eight deliverances, to be realized by all the mental factors; destruction of intoxicants, to be realized by insight.

Four floods, to wit, sensual desires, life renewed, error, ignorance.

Four bonds, to wit, sensual desires, life renewed, error, ignorance.

Four bond-loosenings, to wit, from sensual desires, life renewed, error, ignorance.

Four knots, to wit, the body-knots of covetousness, of malevolence, of inverted judgment as to rule and ritual, and of the inclination to dogmatize.

Four graspings, to wit, the laying hold of sensual desires, of error, of rules and rites, of the soul-theory.

Four matrices, to wit, the matrix of birth by an egg, the viviparous matrix, the matrix of moist places, and rebirth as deva.

Four classes of conception at rebirth. Herein, brethren, one person descends into the mother’s womb unknowing, abides there unknowing, departs thence unknowing. This is the first class of conception. Next, another person descends deliberately, but abides and departs unknowing. Next another person descends and abides deliberately, but departs unknowing. Lastly, another person descends, abides and departs deliberately.

Four methods of acquiring new personality, to wit, (1) in which our own volition works, not another’s, (2) in which another’s volition works, not ours, (3) in which both our own and another’s volition work, (4) in which the volition of neither works.

Four modes of purity in offerings, to wit, (1) when a gift is purely made on the part of the giver, but not purely received; (2) when a gift is made pure by the recipient, not by the giver; (3) when the gift is made pure by both; (4) when the gift is made pure by neither.

Four grounds of popularity, to wit, liberality, kindly speech, justice, impartiality.

Four un-Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, lying, slander, abuse, vain chatter.

Four Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, abstinence from any of the preceding.

Other four un-Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, declaring that to have been seen, heard, thought of, known, which has not been seen, not been herd, not thought of, not known.

Other four Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, declaring truthfully respecting the four preceding cases.

Other four Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, declaring that to have been unseen, unheard, etc., which was seen, heard, etc.

Other four Ariyan modes of speech, to wit, declaring that which has been seen to have been seen, etc.

Four classes of individuals. Herein, brethren (1) a certain individual torments himself, is devoted to self-mortification; (2) another torments others, is devoted to torturing others; (3) another torments both himself and others; (4) another torments neither himself nor others nor is devoted to tormenting either. He thus abstaining lives his life void of longings, perfected, cool, in blissful enjoyment, his whole self ennobled.

Other four individuals. Herein, brethren, (1) a certain person whose conduct makes for his own good, not for that of others; (2) another whose conduct makes for other’s good, not his own; (3) another’s conduct makes for neither; (4) another’s conduct makes both for his own good and for that of others.

Other four individuals, to wit, (1) living in darkness and bound for the dark; (2) living in darkness and bound for the light; (3) living in the light and bound for the darkness; (4) living in the light and bound for the light.

Other four individuals, to wit, the unshaken recluse, the blue lotus recluse, the white lotus recluse, the exquisite recluse.

These fourfold doctrines, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting by all in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Fives

There are Fivefold Doctrines, friends, which have been perfectly declared by the Exalted One, who knows, who sees, Arahant, Buddha supreme. Hereon there should be a chanting by all in concord, not wrangling … for the happiness of devas and men:—which are they?

Five aggregates, to wit, of material qualities, feeling, perception, volitional complexes, consciousness.

Five aggregates [regarded as vehicles] of grasping, to wit, as above …

Five kinds of sensuous pleasures, to wit, the five kinds of sense-objects cognized severally through each sense as desirable, pleasant, agreeable, charming and lovely, bound up with sensuous desires and exciting the passions.

Five ways of destiny, to wit, purgatory, the animal kingdom, the realm of the ‘departed’ (Petas), mankind, the devas.

Five forms of meanness, to wit, in hospitality, in [monopolizing a ministering] family, in gains acquired, in beauty physical and moral, in [monopolizing learnt] truths.

Five hindrances, to wit, sensuality, ill-will, sloth and torpor, excitement and worry, doubt.

Five fetters as to lower worlds, to wit, error of permanent individual entity, doubt, wrong judgment as to rules and ritual, sensuality, malevolence.

Five fetters as to upper [worlds], to wit, lust after rebirth in Rūpa [worlds], lust after rebirth in Arūpa [worlds], conceit, excitement, ignorance.

Five branches of moral training, to wit, abhorrence of murder, theft, inchastity, lying, and intemperance in drink.

Five impossibles, to wit, for an Arahant intentionally to take life, or to take what is not given, so as to amount to theft, or to commit sexual offences, or to lie deliberately, or to spend stored up treasures in worldly enjoyments, as in the days before he left the world.

Five kinds of losses, to wit, of kinsfolk, of wealth, disease, loss of character, loss of sound opinions. No being, friends, because of any of the first three kinds of loss, is after death and bodily dissolution reborn to disaster, to evil destiny, to downfall, to purgatory. But this happens because of the last two kinds of loss.

Five kinds of prosperity, to wit, in kinsfolk, wealth, health, virtue, and sound opinion. No being, friends, because of any of the first three kinds, is after death and dissolution reborn to a happy destiny in a bright world. But this happens because of success in virtue and in winning sound opinions.

Five disasters to the immoral by lapse from virtuous habits. Herein, friends, an immoral person, having lapsed in virtuous habits, incurs, through want of industry, great loss of wealth. Secondly, an evil reputation as to his moral lapse spreads abroad. Thirdly, whatever assembly he attends, whether of nobles, brahmins, householders, members of a religious order, he comes in diffident and disturbed. Fourthly, he dies baffled and without assurance. Fifthly, on the dissolution of the body after death, he is reborn into an unhappy state, an evil destiny, a downfall, a purgatory.

Five advantages to the moral man through his success in virtuous conduct. Herein, friends, in the first place, he acquires through industry great wealth. Secondly, good reports of him spread abroad. Thirdly, whatever assembly he attends, whether or nobles, brahmins, householders, or members of a religious order, he enters confident and undisturbed. Fourthly, he dies with lucid and assured mind. Fifthly, he is reborn to a happy destiny in a bright world.

Five points, friends, should be present inwardly to a brother who is desirous of chiding another. ‘I will speak at a timely moment, not at an untimely moment. I will utter what is true, not what is fictitious, I will speak mildly, not roughly. I will speak from a desire for his good, not for his hurt. I will speak with love in my heart, not enmity.’

Five factors in spiritual wrestling. Herein, friends, a brother has confidence, believing in the Tathāgata’s enlightenment:—‘Thus is the Exalted One: he is Arahant fully awakened, wisdom he has, and righteousness; he is the Well-Farer; he has knowledge of the worlds; he is the supreme driver of men willing to be tamed; the teacher of devas and men; the Awakened and Exalted One’—he is in good health, exempt from suffering, endowed with a smoothly assimilating digestion, neither overheated nor too chilly, but medium, suited for exertion. He is not deceitful nor crafty, honestly making known himself for what he is to the Teacher, or to wise persons among his fellow-disciples. He maintains a flow of energy in eliminating wrong states of mind and evoking good states, vigorous, strongly reaching out, not shirking toil with respect to good states of mind. He has insight, being endowed with understanding which goes to the rise and cessation of all things. Ariyan, penetrating, going to the perfect destruction of ill.

Five Pure Abodes, to wit, the heavens called Avihā, Atappā, Sudassā, Sudassī, Akaniṭṭha.

Five classes of persons become Never-returners:—one who passes away before middle age in that world in which he has been reborn, one who so passes after middle age, one who so passes without much toil, with ease, one who so passes with toil and difficulty, one who striving ‘upstream’ is reborn in the Akaniṭṭha world.

Five spiritual barrennesses. Herein, friends, a brother doubts, is perplexed about the Master, comes to no definite choice, is not satisfied. He being thus, his mind does (sic, does not) incline (lit. bend) towards ardour, devotion, perseverance, exertion:—this is the first barrenness. When he doubts, is perplexed about the Doctrine, the Order, the Training, these are, in order, the second, third and fourth barrennesses. When he is offended with his fellow-disciples, vexed, agitated, sterile towards them, he being thus, his mind does not incline towards ardour, etc.

Five bondages of the mind. Herein, brethren, when a brother has not got rid of the passion for sense-desires, of desire, fondness, thirst, fever, craving for them, he being thus, his mind does not incline towards ardour, devotion, perseverance, exertion. In the same way, when a brother has not got rid of the passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, craving for his own person, or again for external objects, he being thus, his mind does not incline towards ardour, devotion, perseverance, exertion. Fourthly, if a brother have eaten as much as his stomach can hold, and then abides given over to the ease of repose, of turning from this side to that, of sloth … and, fifthly, if a brother have adopted the religious life with the aspiration of belonging to someone or other of the deva-groups, thinking:—‘By these rules or by these rites or by these austerities or by this religious life I shall become a greater, or a lesser deva; he being thus, his mind does not incline towards ardour, devotion, perseverance, exertion.

Five faculties, to wit, those of the five senses.

Other five faculties, to wit, that of pleasure, of pain, joy, grief, indifference.

Other five faculties, to wit, that of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, insight.

Five elements tending to deliverance. Herein, friends, when a brother is contemplating sensuous desires, his heart does not leap forward to them, nor rest complacent in them, does not choose them. But when he is contemplating renunciation of them, his heart leaps forward, rests complacent in it, chooses it. This frame of mind he gets well in hand, well developed, well lifted up, well freed and detached from sense desires. And those intoxicants, whose miseries, those fevers which arise in consequence of sense-desires, from all these he is freed, nor does he feel that sort of feeling. This is pronounced to be the first deliverance. Similarly for the other four elements, namely, from ill will, cruelty, external objects and individuality.

Five occasions of emancipation. Herein, friends, when the Master, or a reverend fellow-disciple teaches the Norm to a brother, according as the teaching is given, the listener comes to know both the matter of the doctrine, and the text of the doctrine. And gladness springs up in him, and in him gladdened zest springs up; his mind enraptured, the faculties become serene; with serenity comes happiness, and of him thus happy the heart is stayed and firm. This is the first occasion. In the next place, a brother has a similar experience not from hearing the Master or a reverend fellow-disciple teach, but while himself teaching others the Norm in detail, as he has learnt and got it by memory … This is the second occasion. In the third place, a brother has a similar experience, not on those first two occasions, but when he is reciting the doctrines of the Norm in detail as he has learnt and got them by memory … This is the third occasion. In the fourth place, a brother has a similar experience, not on those first three occasions, but when he applies his thought to the Norm as he has learnt and got it by memory, and sustains protracted meditation on it and contemplates it in mind … This is the fourth occasion. Finally, a brother has a similar experience, not on those first four occasions, but when he has well grasped some given clue to concentration, has well applied his understanding, has well thought it out, has well penetrated it by intuition … This is the fifth occasion.

Five thoughts by which emancipation reaches maturity, to wit, the notion of impermanence, the notion of suffering in impermanence, the notion of no-soul in suffering, the notion of elimination, the notion of passionlessness.

These fivefold doctrines, friends, have been perfectly set forth … for the happiness of devas and men.

Sixes

There are sixfold doctrines, friends, which have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows … for the happiness of devas and of men. Which are they?

Six fields of personal experience, to wit, sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and mind.

Six external fields [of objects of experience], to wit, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, phenomena.

Six groups of consciousness, to wit, visual, auditory, olfactory, sapid, tactual and perceptual-and-conceptual consciousness.

Six groups of contacts, to wit, visual and other sensory contact, and impact on the mind.

Six groups of feeling on occasion of sensory stimulus, to wit, the feeling that is excited when we see, hear, etc. or when we think.

Six groups of perceptions, to wit, perception on occasion of sensory stimulus, or of ideas.

Six groups of volitions, to wit, purposes on occasion of sensory stimulus, or of ideas.

Six craving-groups, to wit, the five kinds of sense-objects, and phenomena.

Six forms of irreverence. Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself irreverently and insolently to the Master, the Norm, the Order, the training, or to his studies, or lacks in reverence and respect towards the duties of courtesy.

Six forms of reverence. Herein, friends, a brother conducts himself in the opposite manner in the foregoing six cases.

Six pleasurable investigations, to wit, when on occasion of any sensation through the five senses, or any cognition by the mind, a corresponding object giving rise to pleasure is examined.

Six disagreeable investigations, to wit, the contraries of the foregoing.

Six investigations of indifference, to wit, when such investigations as the foregoing leave anyone indifferent.

Six occasions of fraternal living. Herein, friends, when a brother’s kindly act towards his fellow-disciples has been attested, as wrought publicly and in private, that is an occasion of fraternity, causing affection and regard, and conducing to concord, absence of strife, harmony, union. The second and third occasions are those of kindly speech and kind thoughts. In the next place, when a brother who has honestly and righteously obtained gifts, distributes these impartially among his fellow-disciples, and has everything in common with them, even to the contents of his alms-bowl, that is an occasion of fraternity, etc. Next, when the character and moral habits of a brother are without rupture or flaw, are consistently practised, unblemished, making a man free, commended by the wise, unperverted, and conducing to rapt concentration, and he, so virtuous, dwells openly and privately among his fellow-disciples, that is an occasion of fraternity, causing affection and regard, and conducing to concord, absence of strife, harmony, union. Lastly, when a brother lives with his religious life [guided by] that Ariyan, safe-guarding belief, which leads him who so lives to the perfect destruction of sorrow,— when he thus equipped lives among his fellow-disciples publicly and in private, that is an occasion of fraternity … like the foregoing.

Six roots of contention. Herein, friends, take a brother who gets angry and cherishes rancour, and in this mood becomes irreverent and insolent toward the Master, the Norm, the Order, and does not accomplish the training. Such a one stirs up contention in the Order, and that contention is fraught with ill and misery for multitudes, with disadvantage, ill and sorrow for devas and men. If you, friends, should discern such a root of contention among yourselves or in other communities, then should ye strive to get just that evil root of contention eliminated. And if ye do not discern any such root, so work that it may not come to overwhelm you in the future. Such is the eliminating, such is the future averting of that evil root of contention. The other five roots of contention are (2) when a brother conceals other’s good deeds, and is hypocritical … (3) is envious and mean … (4) is deceitful and crafty … (5) is full of evil wishes and false opinions … (6) is infatuated with his own opinion, clutching it tenaciously and is loathe to renounce it.

Six elements, to wit, those of extension, cohesion, heat and mobility [in matter], space and consciousness.

Six elements tending to deliverance. Herein, friends, a brother might say: ‘Lo! I have developed mental emancipation by love, I have multiplied it, made it a vehicle, and a base. I have brought it out, accumulated and set it well going. Nevertheless malevolence persistently possesses my heart.’ To him it should be said: ‘Not so! Say not so, your reverence! Do not misrepresent the Exalted One! It is not well to calumniate the Exalted One! Surely he would not say this was so! This is a baseless and uncalled-for statement, friend. Things cannot be as you say. Emancipation of the heart through love, brother, this is how you become delivered from malevolence. In the same way a brother might wrongly complain that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through pity, he was still possessed by cruelty, or that after cultivating emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy, or through equanimity, he was still possessed by disgust, and passion respectively. Next, friends, a brother might say: ‘Lo! I have developed mental emancipation from the power of any object to catch the fancy and incite lust, I have multiplied that emancipation, made it a vehicle and a base I have brought it out, accumulated and set it well going. Nevertheless my mind still pursues seductive objects. Or again he may say: ‘Lo! The notion “I am” is offensive to me! I pay no heed to the notion “This ‘I’ exists!” Nevertheless doubts and queries and debating still possess my mind.’ To these answer should be made as before. He should be assured that such cannot really be the case; that it is by emancipating the heart through equanimity, or again, through the expulsion of the conceit of the existence of an ‘I,’ that he becomes delivered from lust and from doubts and queries and debatings.

Six unsurpassable experiences, to wit, certain sights, certain things heard, certain gains, certain trainings, certain ministries, certain memories.

Six matters for recollection, to wit, the Buddha, the Norm, the Order, the moral precepts, renunciation, the devas.

Six chronic states. Herein, friends, a brother on occasion of any of the five kinds of sensation, as well as on that of any impression or idea, is neither delighted nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and deliberate.

Six modes of heredity. Herein, friends, some persons being reborn in dark circumstances lead dark lives, others so born lead bright lives, and other so born bring Nibbāna to pass, which is neither dark nor bright. Again, others born in bright circumstances lead bright lives, or dark lives, or bring Nibbāna to pass, which is neither dark nor bright.

Six ideas conducing to Nibbāna, to wit, the idea of impermanence, of ill in impermanence, of soullessness in ill, of elimination of passionlessness, of cessation.

These Sixfold Doctrines, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One … for the happiness of devas and men.

Sevens

There are Sevens in the Doctrine, friends, which have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees … Here should there be chanting by all in concord, not wrangling … for the happiness of devas and men. Which are they?

Seven treasures, to wit, the treasure of faith, of morals, of conscientiousness, of discretion, of learning, of self-denial, of insight.

Seven factors of enlightenment, to wit, the factor of mindfulness, of study of doctrines, of energy, of zest, of serenity, of concentration, of equanimity.

Seven requisites of concentration, to wit, right views, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness.

Seven vicious qualities, to wit, want of faith, unconscientiousness, indiscretion, want of doctrinal knowledge, slackness, muddle-headedness, want of insight.

Seven virtuous qualities, to wit, the opposites of the foregoing.

Seven qualities of the good, to wit, knowledge of the Dhamma, of the meaning [contained in its doctrines], knowledge of self, knowledge how to be temperate, how to choose and keep time, knowledge of groups of persons, and of individuals.

Seven bases of Arahantship. Herein, friends, a brother is keenly desirous of entering the training, and longs to continue doing so. He feels similarly with regard to insight into the doctrine, to the suppression of hankerings, to [the need of] solitude, to evoking energy, to mindfulness and perspicacity, to intuition of the truth.

Seven perceptions, to wit, that of impermanence, of soullessness, of ugliness, of evil [in the world], of elimination, of passionlessness, of cessation.

Seven powers, to wit, the power of faith, energy, conscientiousness, discretion, mindfulness, concentration, insight.

Seven stations of consciousness. There are beings, brethren, who are diverse both in body and in mind, such as mankind, certain devas and some who have gone to an evil doom. This is the first station (or persistence) for [re-born] consciousness. Other beings are diverse of body, but uniform in mind, such as the devas of the Brahma-world, reborn there from [practice here of] first [Jhāna]. Others are uniform in body, diverse in intelligence, such as the Radiant Devas. Others are uniform both in body and in intelligence, such as the All-Lustrous Devas. Others there are who, by having passed wholly beyond all consciousness of matter, by the dying out of the consciousness of sense-reaction, by having turned the attention away from any consciousness of the manifold and become conscious only of ‘space as infinite’ are dwellers in the realm of infinite space. Others there are who, by having passed wholly beyond the realm of infinite space and become conscious only of consciousness as infinite are dwellers in the realm of infinite consciousness. Others there are who, having passed wholly beyond the realm of infinite consciousness, and become conscious only that ‘there is nothing whatever,’ are dwellers in the realm of nothingness. Such are the remaining stations of consciousness.

Seven [types of] persons worthy of offerings, to wit, the freed-both-ways, the freed by insight, they who have bodily testimony, they who have won the view, they who are freed by confidence, the followers of wisdom, and the followers of confidence.

Seven kinds of latent bias, to wit, the bias of sensual passion, of enmity, of false opinion, of doubt, of conceit, of lust for rebirth, of ignorance.

Seven fetters, to wit, compliance, opposition, false opinion, doubt, conceit, lust for rebirth, ignorance.

Seven rules for the pacifying and suppression of disputed questions that have been raised, to wit, the proceeding face-to-face must be performed, the proceeding for the consciously innocent must be performed, the proceeding in the case of those who are no longer out of their mind must be performed, the proceeding on confession of guilt must be carried out, the proceeding by a majority of the Chapter, or the proceeding for the obstinate, or the proceeding by covering over as with grass.

These, friends, are the Double Doctrines perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon there should be a chanting by all in concord, not a wrangling, that thus this holy life may persist and be long maintained. That may be for the welfare and happiness of many folk, for compassion on the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and of men.

Eights

There are ‘Eights in the Doctrine,’ friends, [similarly] set forth. … Which are they?

Eight wrong factors of character and conduct, to wit, wrong views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration.

Eight right factors of character and conduct, to wit, right views, right intentions, etc. … right concentration.

Eight types of persons worthy of offerings, to wit, one who has ‘attained the stream’ [or First Path]. One who has worked for the realizing of the Fruit of stream-attainment. One who is a Once-returner. One who has worked for the realizing of the Fruit of Once-returning. One who is a Never-returner. One who has worked for the realizing of the Fruit of Never-returning. One who is Arahant. One who has worked for the realizing of Arahantship.

Eight bases of slackness. Herein, friends, (1) let a brother have some work to do. He thinks: ‘There’s that work I have to do, but the doing of it will tire me. Well then, I shall lie down.’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (2) Or he has been working, and thinks: ‘I have been working, and the doing of my work has tired me. Well then, I shall lie down.’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (3) Or he has to make a journey, and he thinks: ‘I have to make a journey, and that will tire me. Well then, I shall lie down.’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (4) Or he has gone on his journey, and reflects: ‘I have gone on a journey, and that has tired me. Well then, I shall lie down.’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (5) Or he tours about a village or township for alms and does not obtain his fill of poor or rich food, and thinks: ‘I’ve gone about village, about township for alms and have not obtained my fill of poor or rich food. This body of me is tired and good for naught. Well then, I’ll lie down.’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (6) Or he tours about a village or township for alms and does obtain his fill of poor or rich food and thinks: ‘I’ve gone about a village or township for alms and have obtained my fill of poor or rich food. This body of me is heavy and good for naught, seems to me like a load of soaked beans. Well then, I’ll lie down’ He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (7) Or in him some slight ailment has arisen, and he thinks: In this state it is fit I lie down. He lies down; he stirs up no energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized. (8) Or he has recovered from illness, has recently arisen from some indisposition. And he thinks his body is weak and good for naught and lies down nor stirs up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.

Eight bases of setting afoot an undertaking. Herein, brethren, (1) let a brother have some work to do. He thinks: ‘There is that work I have to do, but in doing it, I shall not find it easy to attend to the religion of the Buddhas. Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (2) Or he has done a task, and thinks: ‘I have been working, but I could not attend to the religion of the Buddhas. Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (3) Or he has to go on a journey, and thinks it will not be easy for him, on his way, to attend to the religion of the Buddhas, and resolves: ‘Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (4) Or he has been on a journey, but has not been able to attend to the religion of the Buddhas, and resolves: Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (5) Or he has toured about village or township for alms and has not obtained his fill of poor or rich food. And he thinks that, under the circumstances, his body is light and fit for work and resolves: Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (6) Or he has toured and has obtained his fill and thinks that, under the circumstances, his body is strong and fit to work and resolves: Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (7) Or in him some slight ailment has arisen. And he thinks it is possible that the ailment may grow worse, so that he must stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’ (8) Or he has recovered from illness, has recently arisen from some indisposition. And he thinks: I have recovered from illness, I have recently arisen from my indisposition. It is possible that the illness may recur. Well then, I will stir up energy to finish that which is not done, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realize the unrealized.’

Eight bases of giving gifts:—One gives (1) because [an object of hospitality] has approached; (2) from fear; (3) because ‘he gave to me’; (4) because ‘he will give to me’; (5) because one thinks ‘giving is blessed’; (6) because one thinks ‘I cook; these do not cook; it is not fit that I who cook should give nothing to those who do not cook’; (7) because one thinks: ‘from the giving of this gift by me an excellent report will spread abroad’; (8) because one wishes to adorn and equip one’s heart.

Eight rebirths due to giving gifts. Herein, friends, (1) a certain person gives a gift to a recluse or brahmin in the shape of food, drink, raiment, vehicle, wreaths, perfumes and ointments, bedding, dwelling and lights. That which he gives, he hopes to receive in his turn. He sees a wealthy noble or brahmin or householder surrounded and attended by, and enjoying the five forms of sensuous pleasures. And he thinks: ‘Ah! If only I may be reborn at the dissolution of the body after death as one amongst wealthy nobles, or brahmins, or householders!” This thought he holds fixed, firmly established, and expands it. This thought set free in a lower range, and not expanded to anything higher, conduces to rebirth within that range. And this, I affirm, only in the case of a moral person, not of one who is vicious. The mental aspiration, friends, of a moral person succeeds because of its purity. (2) Another person giving similar gifts, and similarly hoping, may have learnt thus: ‘Devas in the realm of the four kings of the firmament are long-lived, splendid in appearance and lead a blissful existence.’ He aspires to be reborn among them, and holds the thought fixed … .This … conduces to rebirth within that [lower] range. And this, I affirm, only in the case of a moral person. … The mental aspiration, brethren, of a moral person succeeds because of its purity. (3–7) Or one so giving may have learnt similar lore about other heavens:—the Three-and Thirty gods, the Yāma, the Tusita, the Nimmānarati, the Paranimmita-vasavatti gods, or (8) about the gods of the Brahma world he may have learnt in similar terms. He thinks: ‘Ah! Would that after death I might be reborn as one among them!’ That thought he holds fixed, that thought he firmly establishes, that thought he expands. That thought set free in a lower range, and not expanded to anything higher, conduces to rebirth within that range. And this, I affirm, only in the case of a moral person, not of one who is vicious, in the case of one who has got rid of the passions, not of one still beset by them. The mental aspiration, friends, of a moral person succeeds because it is void of lustful passion.

Eight assemblies, to wit, those of nobles, brahmins, householders, religious orders, four-king devas, Three-and-Thirty devas, Māra devas and Brahma devas.

Eight matters of worldly concern, to wit, gains and losses, fame and obscurity, blame and praise, pleasures and pains.

Eight positions of mastery. (1) When anyone pictures to himself some material feature of his person and sees [corresponding] features in others, lovely or ugly, as small, transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so, [thinks] ‘I know, I see!’ (2) Or when he has the same experience, but sees those features not as small, but as infinitely great, and nevertheless transcending this [object], and is aware of doing so [thinks]: ‘I know, I see!’ (3) Or when he sees the features in others lovely or ugly, as small, without first picturing any material feature of his own transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so, [thinks] ‘I know, I see!’ (4) Or when he sees the features in others but sees those features not as small, but as infinitely great, and nevertheless transcending this [object], and is aware of doing so [thinks]: ‘I know, I see!’ (5) Or when without the personal preliminary, he sees external shapes of indigo, indigo in colour, indigo in visible expanse, indigo in lustre, as is the ummā flower, or a Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so, [thinks] ‘I know, I see!’ (6) or shapes of yellow, yellow in colour, yellow in visible expanse, yellow in lustre, as is the kaṇikāra flower, or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so, [thinks] ‘I know, I see!’ (7) or shapes of red, red in colour, red in visible expanse, red in lustre, as is the bandhujīvaka flower, or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides transcending this [object] he is aware of doing so, [thinks] ‘I know, I see!’ (8) or shapes of white, white in color, white in visible expanse, white in lustre as is the morning star, or Benares muslin delicately finished on both sides transcends this [object] and is aware of doing so, [thinks]: ‘I know, I see!’

Eight deliverances, to wit, (1) He, picturing any material feature of himself, sees such material features [as they really are]. (2) Not picturing any such, he sees material features external to his own. (3) He decides that it is beautiful. (4) By passing wholly beyond all consciousness of material qualities, by the dying out of the awareness of sensory reaction, by the unheeding of any awareness of difference, he enters into and abides in that rapt ecstasy which is a consciousness of infinite space. (5) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness, he enters into and abides in that rapt ecstasy which is a consciousness of infinitude of consciousness itself. (6) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere of consciousness, he enters into and abides in that rapt ecstasy which regards consciousness itself as nothing whatever, a sphere of nothingness. (7) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere, he enters into and abides in that rapt consciousness which neither is, nor yet is not to be called conscious. (8) By passing wholly beyond such a sphere, he enters into and abides in a state of unconsciousness, wherein awareness and feeling cease.

These, Eights in the Doctrine, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. … Hereon should there be chanting by all in concord …

Nines

There are Nines in the Doctrine, friends, which have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Hereon should there be chanting in concord by all, not wrangling … for the happiness of devas and men. Which are they?

Nine bases of quarrelling, thus: — quarrelling is stirred up at the thought: ‘he has done me an injury,’ or ‘he is doing me an injury,’ or ‘he will do me an injury,’ or ‘he has done, is doing, will do an injury to one I love,’ or ‘he has bestowed a benefit, is bestowing, will bestow a benefit on one I dislike.’

Nine suppressions of quarrelling, thus: — quarrelling is suppressed by the thought: ‘He has done, is doing, will do me an injury, or ‘he has done, is doing, will do an injury to one I love’, or ‘he has bestowed, is bestowing, will bestow a benefit on one I dislike’, true, but what gain would there be to either of us if I quarrelled about it?’

Nine spheres inhabited by beings. The first four are described in terms verbatim of the first four stations of consciousness. (5) There are beings without perception or feeling. These live in the sphere of the ‘unconscious devas.’ (6) There are beings who having passed wholly beyond awareness of material qualities, by the dying out of sensory reaction, by unheeding the awareness of difference, have attained to the sphere of infinite space with a consciousness thereof. (7–9) Similarly other beings have attained to the sphere of infinite consciousness, of nothingness, of neither consciousness nor yet unconsciousness.

Nine untimely unseasonable intervals for life in a religious order, (1) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time in purgatory. This is the first untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (2) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time in the animal kingdom. This is the second untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (3) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time among the Petas. This is the third untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (4) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time among the Asūras. This is the fourth untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (5) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time among some long-lived deva community. This is the fifth untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (6) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time in the border countries among unintelligent barbarians, where there is no opening for members of the Order or lay-brethren. This is the sixth untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (7) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And this person is reborn at that time in the middle countries, but he holds wrong opinions and has perverted vision, holding that gifts, offerings, oblations are as naught, for there is no fruit nor result of deeds well or ill done; there are no parents nor birth without them; there are no recluses or brahmins in the world who have attained the highest, leading perfect lives, and who, having known and realized each for himself the truth as to this and the next world, do reveal it. This is the seventh untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (8) A Tathāgata, friends, is born into the world, Arahant Buddha Supreme. The Norm is taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, declared by the Well-Farer. And though reborn at the time in the Middle countries, he is stupid, dull, or deaf and dumb, unable to know whether a matter has been well said or ill said. This is the eighth untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order. (9) Or finally, friends, a Tathāgata has not arisen in the world as Arahant Buddha Supreme, the Norm is not taught, quenching [the passions], extinguishing [the passions], leading to enlightenment, as revealed by the Well-Farer; and this person is [in that interval] reborn in the Middle country, is intelligent, bright of wit, nor deaf-mute, able to know whether a matter has been well said or ill said. This is the nineth untimely, unseasonable period for living in a religious order.

Nine successional states, to wit, the Four Jhānas [of Rūpa-world consciousness], the Four Jhānas of Arūpa-world consciousness and complete trance.

Nine successional cessations, thus:—Taking each of the foregoing nine in order, by the attainment of (1) First Jhāna, sensuous perceptions cease, (2) Second Jhāna, applied and sustained thought ceases, (3) Third Jhāna zest ceases, (4) Fourth Jhāna, respiration ceases, (5) by the perception of infinite space, perception of material things ceases, (6) by the perception of infinite consciousness, perception of infinite space ceases, (7) by the perception of nothingness, perception of infinite consciousness ceases, (8) by the perception that is neither conscious nor yet unconscious, perception of nothingness ceases, (9) by the cessation of perception and feeling, perception that is neither conscious nor yet unconscious ceases.

These Nines in the Doctrine, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One, etc. … Herein should there be chanting by all in concord …

Tens

There are Tens in the Doctrine, friends, which have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One who knows, who sees. Here should there be chanting by all in concord, not wrangling … for the happiness of devas and men. Which are the tens?

Ten doctrines conferring protection.

(1) Herein friends, a brother is virtuous, lives self-controlled according to the self-control prescribed in the Vinaya, he has entered on a proper range of conduct, he sees danger in the least of the things he should avoid, he adopts and trains himself in the precepts. (2) He learns much, and remembers and stores up what he has learnt. Those doctrines which, excellent at the start, in the middle, at the end, in the letter and in their contents, declare the absolutely perfect and pure religious life, these he learns to a great extent bears them in mind, treasures them by repetition, ponders them in mind, penetrates them by intuition. (3) He is a friend, an associate, an intimate of men of good character. (4) He is affable, endowed with gentleness and humility; he is patient and receives admonition with deference. (5) Where there are duties to be done for the seniors among his fellow-disciples, he therein is industrious, not slothful, and exercises forethought in methods for discharging them, is capable of accomplishing, capable of organizing. (6) And furthermore, friends, he loves the doctrine, the utterance of it is dear to him, he finds exceeding joy in the advanced teaching of both Doctrine and Discipline. (7) Furthermore, friends, he is content with necessaries of any quality, whether it be raiment, alms, lodging, drugs and provision against sickness. (8) Furthermore, friends, he is continually stirring up effort to eliminate bad qualities, evoke good qualities, making dogged and vigorous progress in good things, never throwing off the burden. (9) Furthermore, friends, he is mindful, and possessed of supreme lucidity and perspicacity in following mentally and recollecting deeds and words long past. (10) Furthermore, friends, he is intelligent, endowed with insight into the rise and passing away [of things], insight which is of that Ariyan penetration which leads to the complete destruction of pain.

Ten objects for self-hypnosis. These, perceived severally as above, below or across, and as homogeneous, and without limits, are a piece of earth [extended matter], water, fire, air, indigo, yellow, red, white, space, consciousness.

Ten bad channels of action, to wit, taking life, theft, inchastity, lying, abuse, slander, idle talk, covetousness, malevolence, wrong views.

Ten good channels of action, to wit, abstention from all the foregoing.

Ten Ariyan methods of living. Herein, friends, a brother has got rid of five factors, is possessed of six factors, has set the one guard, carries out the four bases of observance, has put away sectarian opinions, has utterly given up quests, is candid in his thoughts, has calmed the restlessness of his body, and is well emancipated in heart and intellect. (1) What five factors has he got rid of? Sensuality, malevolence, sloth and torpor, excitement and worry, doubt. (2) What six factors is he possessed of? The six ‘chronic states.’ (See p. 234) (3) How has he set the one guard? By the mental guard of mindfulness. (4) What are the four bases of observance? Herein a brother judges that something is to be (i) habitually pursued, (ii) endured, (iii) avoided, (iv) suppressed. (5) How does he become ‘one who has put away sectarian opinions? All those many opinions of the mass of recluses and brahmins which are held by individuals as dogmas:—all these he has dismissed, put away, given up, ejected, let go, eliminated, abandoned. (6) How is he one whose questing is utterly given up? He has eliminated the questing after worldly desires, the questing for rebirth, the questing for religious life. (7) How is he candid in his thoughts? He has eliminated occupying his mind with sensual or malicious or cruel ideas. (8) How does he tranquillize the activity of the body? Because of eliminating the being affected pleasurably or painfully, because of the dying out of previous impressions as joyful or sorrowful, he attains to and abides in a state of neutral feeling, of very pure indifference and mental lucidity, namely, the state called Fourth Jhāna. (9) How does he become well emancipated in heart? He becomes emancipated in heart from passion, hate, and illusion. (10) How does he become well emancipated in intellect? He understands his emancipated condition, namely, in the thought: Passion … hate … illusion … for me are eliminated, cut off at the root, become as a palm tree stump, become non-existent, unable to grow again in future.

Ten qualities belonging to the adept, to wit, the right (or perfect) views, intentions, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration, insight and emancipation as held by adepts.

These Tens in the Doctrine, friends, have been perfectly set forth by the Exalted One, who knows, who sees. Here should there be chanting by all in concord, not wrangling, in order that the holy life may live and be long established. Thus will it be for the welfare, for the happiness of multitudes, a kindness to the world, for the good, the welfare, the happiness of devas and men.


Now when the Exalted One had arisen he addressed the venerable Sāriputta saying: ‘Excellent, Sāriputta, excellent! Excellently, Sāriputta, have you uttered the scheme of chanting together for the brethren.’ These things were spoken by the venerable Sāriputta. The Master signified his assent. The brethren were pleased and delighted with the venerable Sāriputta’s discourse.