Long Discourses

Pāṭika Chapter

26. The Lion-roar on the Turning of the Wheel

War, Wickedness, and Wealth

Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was once staying in the land of the Magadhese at Mātulā. Now there the Exalted One addressed the brethren, saying: Brethren!

And they made answer: Lord!

The Exalted One spake thus: Live ye as islands unto yourselves, brethren, as refuges unto yourselves, taking no other as your refuge; live with the doctrine (the Norm), as your island, with the Norm as your refuge, taking no other as your refuge.

But how, brethren, does a brother live as an island unto himself, as a refuge unto himself, taking no other as his refuge? How does he live with the Norm as his island, with the Norm as his refuge, taking no other refuge?

Herein, brethren, a brother as to the body, continues so to look upon the body that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, that he may overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world; as to the feelings, continues so to look upon these that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, that he may overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world; as to thought, continues so to look upon these that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, that he may overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world; as to ideas, continues so to look upon these that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, that he may overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

Thus, brethren, does a brother live as an island unto himself, as a refuge unto himself, taking no other as his refuge? How does he live with the Norm as his island, with the Norm as his refuge, taking no other refuge?

Keep to your own pastures, brethren, walk in the haunts where your fathers roamed.

If ye thus walk in them the Evil One will find no landing-place, no basis of attack.

It is precisely by the cultivation of good qualities that this merit grows.

Long, long ago, brethren, there was a sovereign overlord named Strongtyre, a righteous king ruling in righteousness, lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of the seven precious things.

His were these seven precious things, to wit, the Wheel, the Elephant, the Horse, the Gem, the Woman, the House-father, the Counsellor.

More than a thousand sons also were his, heroes, vigorous of frame, crushers of the hosts of the enemy.

He lived in supremacy over this earth to its ocean bounds, having conquered it, not by the scourge, not by the sword, but by righteousness.

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, King Strongtyre commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place.

On seeing that he went to King Strongtyre and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then King Strongtyre, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place.

Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live.

I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys.

Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean.

But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, King Strongtyre, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state.

But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow.

And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted.

For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel.

But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.]

Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds.

Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail.

And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good.

This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord.

To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete.

And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch.

May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men.

And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army.

Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given.

Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires.

Ye shall speak no lie.

Ye shall drink no maddening drink.

Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men.

And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army.

Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing.

Ye shall not take that which has not been given.

Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires.

Ye shall speak no lie.

Ye shall drink no maddening drink.

Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men.

And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army.

Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing.

Ye shall not take that which has not been given.

Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires.

Ye shall speak no lie.

Ye shall drink no maddening drink.

Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men.

And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army.

Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing.

Ye shall not take that which has not been given.

Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires.

Ye shall speak no lie.

Ye shall drink no maddening drink.

Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Third in the Line

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place. On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place. Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live. I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys. Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean. But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state. But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow. And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted. For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel. But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.] Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds. Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail. And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good. This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord. To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete. And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch. May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Fourth in the Line

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place. On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place. Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live. I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys. Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean. But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state. But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow. And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted. For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel. But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.] Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds. Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail. And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good. This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord. To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete. And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch. May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Fifth in the Line

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place. On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place. Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live. I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys. Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean. But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state. But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow. And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted. For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel. But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.] Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds. Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail. And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good. This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord. To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete. And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch. May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Sixth in the Line

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place. On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place. Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live. I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys. Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean. But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state. But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow. And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted. For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel. But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.] Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds. Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail. And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good. This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord. To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete. And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch. May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Seventh in the Line

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place. On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place. Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live. I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys. Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean. But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state. But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then that king, brethren, the anointed warrior, was grieved thereat and afflicted with sorrow. And he went to the royal hermit and told him, saying: Know, sire, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared.

And the anointed king so saying, the royal hermit made reply: Grieve thou not, dear son, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared, nor be afflicted. For no paternal heritage of thine, dear son, is the Celestial Wheel. But verily, dear son, turn thou in the Ariyan turning of the Wheel-turners. [Act up to the noble ideal of duty set before themselves by the true sovereigns of the world.] Then it may well be that if thou carry out the Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch, and on the feast of the full moon thou wilt go with bathed head to keep the feast on the chief upper terrace, lo, the Celestial Wheel will manifest itself with its thousand spokes, its tyre, navel, and all its parts complete!

But what, sire, is this Ariyan duty of a Wheel-turning Monarch?

This, dear son, that thou, leaning on the Norm [the Law of truth and righteousness] honouring, respecting and revering it, doing homage to it, hallowing it, being thyself a Norm-banner, a Norm-signal, having the Norm as thy master, shouldst provide the right watch, ward, and protection for thine own folk, for the army, for the nobles, for vassals, for brahmins, and householders, for town and country dwellers, for the religious world, and for beasts and birds. Throughout thy kingdom let no wrongdoing prevail. And whosoever in thy kingdom is poor, to him let wealth be given.

And when, dear son, in thy kingdom men of religious life, renouncing the carelessness arising from the intoxication of the senses, and devoted to forbearance and sympathy, each mastering self, each calming self, each perfecting self, shall come to thee from time to time, and question thee concerning what is good and what is bad, what is criminal and what is not, what is to be done and what left undone, what line of action will in the long run work for weal or for woe, thou shouldst hear what they have to say, and thou shouldst deter them from evil, and bid them take up what is good. This, dear son, is the Ariyan duty of a sovereign of the world.

Even so, sire, answered the anointed king, and obeying, carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign lord. To him, thus behaving, when on the feast of the full moon he had gone in due observance with bathed head to the chief upper terrace, the Celestial Wheel revealed itself, with its thousand spokes, its tyre, its navel, and all its parts complete. And seeing this it occurred to the king: It has been told me that a king to whom on such an occasion the Celestial Wheel reveals itself completely, becomes a Wheel-turning monarch. May I even I also become a sovereign of the world

Then, brethren, the king arose from his seat, and uncovering his robe from one shoulder, took in his left hand a pitcher, and with his right hand sprinkled up over the Celestial Wheel, saying: Roll onward, O lord Wheel! Go forth and overcome, O lord Wheel!

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel rolled onwards towards the region of the East, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the East became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Eastern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the South, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the South became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Southern ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the West, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the West became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then, brethren, the Celestial Wheel, plunging down into the Western ocean, rose up out again, and rolled onwards to the region of the North, and after it went the Wheel-turning king, and with him his army, horses and chariots and elephants and men. And in whatever place, brethren, the Wheel stopped, there the king, the victorious war-lord, took up his abode, and with him his fourfold army. Then all the rival kings in the region of the East came to the sovereign king and said: Come, O mighty king! Welcome, O mighty king! All is thine, O mighty king! Teach us, O mighty king!

The king, the sovereign war-lord, spake thus: Ye shall slay no living thing. Ye shall not take that which has not been given. Ye shall not act wrongly touching bodily desires. Ye shall speak no lie. Ye shall drink no maddening drink. Enjoy your possessions as you have been wont to do.

Then, brethren, all they that were enemy kings in the region of the North became vassals to the king, the Wheel-turner.

Then when the Celestial Wheel had gone forth conquering over the whole earth to its ocean boundary, it returned to the royal city, and stood, so that one might think it fixed, in front of the judgment hall at the entrance to the inner apartments of the king, the Wheel-turner, lighting up with its glory the facade of the inner apartments of the king, the sovereign of the world.


The Eighth in the Line; Great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Strongtyre:

Now, brethren, after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years, the King commanded a certain man, saying: If thou shouldst see, sirrah, that the Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place, bring me word.

Even so, sire, replied the man.

Now after many years, after many hundred years, after many thousand years that man saw that the Celestial Wheel had sunk, had slipped down from its place.

On seeing that he went to the King and said: Know, sire, for a truth that thy Celestial Wheel has sunk, has slipped down from its place.

Then the King, brethren, let the prince his eldest son be sent for, and spake thus: Behold, dear boy, my Celestial Wheel has sunk a little, has slipped down from its place.

Now it has been told me: If the Celestial Wheel of a Wheel-turning King shall sink down, shall slip down from its place, that king has not much longer to live.

I have had my fill of human pleasures; ’Tis time to seek after divine joys.

Come, dear boy, take thou charge over this earth bounded by the ocean.

But I, shaving hair and beard, and donning yellow robes, will go forth from home into the homeless state.

So, brethren, the King, having in due form established his eldest son on the throne, shaved hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from home into the homeless state.

But on the seventh day after the royal hermit had gone forth, the Celestial Wheel disappeared.

Then a certain man went to the king, the anointed warrior, and told him, saying: Know, O king, for a truth, that the Celestial Wheel has disappeared!

Then the king, the anointed Kshatriya, was grieved at the disappearance of the Wheel, and afflicted with grief.

But he did not go to the hermit-king to ask concerning the Ariyan Duty of a sovereign war-lord.

By his own ideas, forsooth, he governed his people; and they so governed, differently from what they had been, did not prosper as they used to do under former kings who had carried out the Ariyan duty of a sovereign king.

Then, brethren, the ministers and courtiers, the finance officials, the guards and doorkeepers, and they who lived by sacred verses came to the king, the anointed warrior, and spake thus: Thy people, O king, whilst thou governest them by thine own ideas, differently from the way to which they were used when former kings were carrying out the Ariyan duty, prosper not.

Now there are in thy kingdom ministers and courtiers, finance officers, guards and custodians, and they who live by sacred verses—both all of us and others—who keep the knowledge of the Ariyan duty of a sovereign king.

Lo! O king, do thou ask us concerning it; to thee thus asking will we declare it.

Then, brethren, the king, the anointed warrior, having made the ministers and all the rest sit down together, asked them about the Ariyan duty of a sovereign war-lord.

And they declared it unto him.

And when he had heard them, he did provide the due watch and ward and protection, but on the destitute he bestowed no wealth.

And because this was not done, poverty became widespread.

When poverty was thus become rife, a certain man took that which others had not given him, what people call by theft.

Him they caught, and brought before the king, saying: This man, O king, has taken that which was not given him, and that is theft.

Thereupon the king spake thus to the man: Is it true, sirrah, that thou hast taken what no man gave thee, hast committed what men call theft?

It is true, O king.

But why?

O king, I have nothing to keep me alive.

Then the king bestowed wealth on that man, saying: With this wealth, sirrah, do thou both keep thyself alive, maintain thy parents, maintain children and wife, carry on thy business, and keep up such alms for holy men as shall be of value in the realms above, heavenly gifts, the result whereof shall be happiness here and rebirth in the heavenly worlds.

Even so, O king, replied the man.

Now another man, brethren, took by theft what was not given him.

Him they caught and brought before the king, the anointed Kshatriya, and told him, saying: This man, O king, hath taken by theft what was not given him.

Thereupon the king spake thus to the man: Is it true, sirrah, that thou hast taken what no man gave thee, hast committed what men call theft?

It is true, O king.

But why?

O king, I have nothing to keep me alive.

Then the king bestowed wealth on that man, saying: With this wealth, sirrah, do thou both keep thyself alive, maintain thy parents, maintain children and wife, carry on thy business, and keep up such alms for holy men as shall be of value in the realms above, heavenly gifts, the result whereof shall be happiness here and rebirth in the heavenly worlds.

Even so, O king, replied the man.

Now men heard, brethren, that to them who had taken by theft what was not given them, the king was giving wealth.

And hearing they thought: Let us then take by theft what has not been given us.

Now a certain man did so.

And him they caught and charged before the king, the anointed Kshatriya, and told him, saying: This man, O king, hath taken by theft what was not given him.

Thereupon the king spake thus to the man: Is it true, sirrah, that thou hast taken what no man gave thee, hast committed what men call theft?

It is true, O king.

But why?

Because, O king, I cannot maintain myself.

Then the king thought: If I bestow wealth on anyone soever who has taken by theft what was not given him, there will be hereby an increase of this stealing.

Let me now put a final stop to this, inflict condign punishment on him, have his head cut off!

So he bade his men saying: Now, look ye! bind this man’s arms behind him with a strong rope and a tight knot, shave his head bald, lead him around with a harsh sounding drum, from road to road, from crossways to crossways, take him out by the southern gate, and to the south of the town, put a final stop to this, inflict on him the uttermost penalty, cut off his head.

Even so, O king, answered the men, and carried out his commands.

Now men heard, brethren, that they who took by theft what was not given them, were thus put to death.

And hearing, they thought: Let us also now have sharp swords made ready for ourselves, and them, from whom we take what is not given us—what they call theft—let us put a final stop to them, inflict on them the uttermost penalty, and cut their heads off.

And they gat themselves sharp swords, and came forth to sack village and town and city, and to work highway robbery.

And them whom they robbed they made an end of, cutting off their heads.

Thus, brethren, from goods not being bestowed on the destitute poverty grew rife; from poverty growing rife stealing increased, from the spread of stealing violence grew apace, from the growth of violence the destruction of life became common, from the frequency of murder both the span of life in those beings and their comeliness also wasted away, so that, of humans whose span of life was eighty thousand years, the sons lived but forty thousand years.

Now among humans of the latter span of life, brethren, a certain man took by theft what was not given him.

And him they caught and charged before the king, the anointed Kshatriya, and told him, saying: This man, O king, hath taken by theft what was not given him.

Thereupon the king spake thus to the man: Is it true, sirrah, that thou hast taken what no man gave thee, hast committed what men call theft?

Nay, O king, he replied, thus deliberately telling a lie.

Thus, brethren, from goods not being bestowed on the destitute poverty grew rife; from poverty growing rife stealing increased, from the spread of stealing violence grew apace, from the growth of violence the destruction of life became common, from the frequency of murder lying grew common.

And from lying growing common both the span of life in those beings and the comeliness of them wasted away, so that of humans whose span of life was forty thousand years, the sons lived but twenty thousand years.

Now among humans of the latter life-span, a certain man took by theft what was not given him.

Him a certain man reported to the king, the anointed Kshatriya, saying: Such and such a man, O king, has taken by theft what was not given him—thus speaking evil of him.

And so, brethren, from goods not being bestowed on the destitute poverty grew rife; from poverty growing rife stealing increased, from the spread of stealing violence grew apace, from the growth of violence the destruction of life became common, from the frequency of murder lying grew common, from lying growing common, evil speaking grew abundant.

And from evil speaking growing abundant, both the life-span of those beings and also the comeliness of them wasted away, so that, of humans whose life-span was twenty thousand years, the sons live but ten thousand years.

Now among humans of the latter span of life, brethren, some were comely and some were ugly.

And so those who were ugly, coveting them that were comely, committed adultery with their neighbours’ wives.

Thus from goods not being bestowed on the destitute poverty grew rife; from poverty growing rife stealing increased, from the spread of stealing violence grew apace, from the growth of violence the destruction of life became common, from the frequency of murder lying grew common, from lying growing common, evil speaking grew abundant, from evil speaking growing abundant, immorality grew rife.

And from the increase of immorality, both the life-span of those beings and also the comeliness of them wasted away, so that, of humans whose lifespan was ten thousand years, the sons lived but five thousand years.

Now among humans of the latter span of life, brethren, two things increased, abusive speech and idle talk.

And from these two things increasing, both the life-span of those beings and the comeliness of them wasted away, so that, of humans whose life-span was five thousand years, some sons lived but two and a half, some but two thousand years.

Among humans of a life-span of two thousand years and a half, covetousness and ill-will waxed great.

And thereby both the life-span of those beings and the comeliness of them wasted away, so that, of humans whose life-span was two and a half, or two thousand years, the sons lived but a thousand years.

Among humans of the latter span of life, brethren, false opinions grew.

And thereby the life-span of those beings and the comeliness of them wasted, so that, of humans whose span of life was a thousand years, the sons lived but five hundred years.

Among humans of the latter span of life, brethren, three things grew apace: incest, wanton greed, and perverted lust.

Thereby the life-span of those beings and their comeliness wasted, so that, of humans whose span of life was five hundred years, some sons lived but two and a half centuries, some only two centuries.

Among humans of a life-span, brethren, of two and a half centuries, these things grew apace—lack of filial piety to mother and father, lack of religious piety to holy men, lack of regard for the head of the clan.

Thus, brethren, from goods not being bestowed on the destitute poverty grew rife; from poverty growing rife stealing increased, from the spread of stealing violence grew apace, from the growth of violence the destruction of life became common, from the frequency of murder lying grew common, from lying growing common, evil speaking grew abundant, from evil speaking growing abundant, adultery grew common, from adultery growing common abusive and idle talk grew common, from abusive and idle talk growing common, covetousness and ill-will grew common, from covetousness and ill-will growing common, false opinions grew common, from false opinions growing common, incest, wanton greed and perverted lust grew common, finally from incest, wanton greed and perverted lust growing common lack of filial and religious piety and lack of regard for the head of the clan grew great.

From these things growing, the life-span of those beings and the comeliness of them wasted, so that, of humans whose span of life was two and a half centuries, the sons lived but one century.

There will come a time, brethren, when the descendants of those humans will have a life-span of ten years.

Among humans of this life-span, maidens of five years will be of a marriageable age.

Among such humans these kinds of tastes (savours) will disappear: ghee, butter, oil of tila, sugar, salt.

Among such humans kudrūsa grain will be the highest kind of food.

Even as to-day rice and curry is the highest kind of food, so will kudrūsa grain be then.

Among such humans the ten moral courses of conduct will altogether disappear, the ten immoral courses of action will flourish excessively; there will be no word for moral among such humans—far less any moral agent.

Among such humans, brethren, they who lack filial and religious piety, and show no respect for the head of the clan—’Tis they to whom homage and praise will be given, just as today homage and praise are given to the filial-minded, to the pious and to them who respect the heads of their clans.

Among such humans, brethren, there will be no [such thoughts of reverence as are a bar to inter-marriage with] mother, or mother’s sister, or mother’s sister-in-law, or teacher’s wife, or father’s sister-in-law.

The world will fall into promiscuity, like goats and sheep, fowls and swine, dogs and jackals.

Among such humans, brethren, keen mutual enmity will become the rule, keen ill-will, keen animosity, passionate thoughts even of killing, in a mother towards her child, in a child towards its mother, in a father towards his child and a child towards its father, in brother to brother, in brother to sister, in sister to brother.

Just as a sportsman feels towards the game that he sees, so will they feel.

Among such humans, brethren, there will arise a sword-period of seven days, during which they will look on each other as wild beasts; sharp swords will appear ready to their hands, and they, thinking ‘This is a wild beast, this is a wild beast,’ will with their swords deprive each other of life.

Then to some of those beings it will occur: Let us not slay just anyone; nor let just anyone slay us!

Let us now, therefore, betake ourselves to dens of grass, or dens in the jungle, or holes in trees, or river fastnesses, or mountain clefts, and subsist on roots and fruits of the jungle.

And they will do so for those seven days.

And at the end of those seven days, coming forth from those dens and fastnesses and mountain clefts, they will embrace each other, and be of one accord comforting one another, and saying: Hail, O mortal, that thou livest still!

O happy sight to find thee still alive!

Then this, brethren, will occur to those beings: Now, only because we had gotten into evil ways, have we had this heavy loss of kith and kin.

Let us therefore now do good.

What can we do that is good?

Let us now abstain from taking life.

That is a good thing that we may take up and do.

And they will abstain from slaughter, and will continue in this good way.

Because of their getting into this good way, they will increase again both as to their span of life and as to their comeliness.

And to them thus increasing in life and comeliness, to them who lived but one decade, there will be children who will live for twenty years.

Then this, brethren, will occur to those beings: Now we, because we have gotten into good ways, increase in length of life and comeliness.

Let us now do still more good.

Let us now abstain from taking what is not given, let us abstain from adultery, let us now abstain from lying, let us now abstain from evil speaking, let us now abstain from abuse and from idle talk, let us now abstain from covetousness, from ill-will, from false opinions, let us now abstain from the three things—incest, wanton greed and perverted desires; let us now be filial towards our mothers, and our fathers, let us be pious toward holy men, let us respect the heads of clans, yea, let us continue to practise each of these good things.

So they will practise these virtues, and they abstain from taking what is not given, they abstain from adultery, they abstain from lying, they abstain from evil speaking, they abstain from abuse and from idle talk, they abstain from covetousness, they abstain from ill-will, from false opinions, they abstain from the three things—incest, wanton greed and perverted desires; they become filial towards mothers and fathers, pious toward holy men, respectful of the heads of clans.

And because of the good they do they will increase in length of life, and in comeliness, so that the sons of them who lived but twenty years, will come to live forty years.

And the sons of these sons will come to live eighty years; their sons to 160 years; their sons to 320 years; their sons to 640 years; their sons to 2,000 years; their sons to 4,000 years; their sons to 8,000 years; their sons to 20,000 years; their sons to 40,000 years; and the sons of those that lived 40,000 years will come to live 80,000 years.

Among humans living 80,000 years, brethren, maidens are marriageable at 500 years of age.

Among such humans there will be only three kinds of disease—appetite, non-assimilation and old age.

Among such humans, this India will be mighty and prosperous, the villages, towns and royal cities will be so close that a cock could fly from each one to the next.

Among such humans this India—one might think it a Waveless Deep—will be pervaded by mankind even as a jungle is by reeds and rushes.

Among such humans the Benares of our day will be named Ketumatī, a royal city, mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded and well fed.

Among such humans in this India there will be 84,000 towns, with Ketumatī the royal city at their head.

Among such humans, brethren, at Ketumatī the royal city, there will arise Sankha, a Wheel-turning king, righteous and ruling in righteousness, lord of the four quarters, conqueror, protector of his people, possessor of the seven precious things.

His will be these seven precious things, to wit, the Wheel, the Elephant, the Horse, the Gem, the Woman, the House-father, the Councillor.

More than a thousand also will be his offspring, heroes, vigorous of frame, crushers of the hosts of the enemy.

He will live in supremacy over this earth to its ocean bounds, having conquered it not by the scourge, not by the sword, but by righteousness.

At that period, brethren, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Metteyya, Arahant, Fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an, Exalted One, a Buddha, even as I am now.

He, by himself, will thoroughly know and see, as it were face to face, this universe, with its worlds of the spirits, its Brahmās and its Māras, and its world of recluses and brahmins, of princes and peoples, even as I now, by myself, thoroughly know and see them.

The truth [the Norm] lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, will he proclaim, both in the spirit and in the letter, the higher life will he make known, in all its fulness and in all its purity, even as I do now.

He will be accompanied by a congregation of some thousands of brethren, even as I am now accompanied by a congregation of some hundreds of brethren.

Then, brethren, King Sankha will raise up again the fairy palace which the King Great Panāda had had built.

And therein will he dwell.

But afterwards he will give it away, hand it over as a gift to recluses and brahmins, to the destitute, wayfarers and beggars.

And he himself, cutting off hair and beard, will don the yellow robes, and leave his home for the life that is homeless under Metteyya the Exalted One, the Arahant fully awakened.

And he, having thus left the world, will remain alone and separate, earnest, zealous and master of himself.

And ere long he will attain to that supreme goal for the sake of which clansmen go forth from the household life into the homeless state; yea, that supreme goal will he, while yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and continue to realize and to know!

Live as islands unto yourselves, brethren, as refuges unto yourselves, take none other as your refuge, live with the Norm as your island, with the Norm as your refuge, take none other as your refuge.

But how, brethren, does a brother live as an island unto himself, as a refuge unto himself, taking no other as his refuge?

How does he live with the Norm as his island, with the Norm as his refuge, taking no other refuge?

Herein, brethren, a brother as to the body, as to the feelings, as to thought, as to ideas, continues so to look upon these that he remains ardent, self-possessed, and mindful, that he may overcome both the hankering and the dejection common in the world.

Thus, brethren, does a brother live as an island unto himself, as a refuge unto himself, taking no other as his refuge?

Thus, brethren, does a brother live with the Norm as his island, with the Norm as his refuge, taking no other refuge.

Keep to your own pastures, brethren, walk in the haunts where your fathers roamed.

If ye so walk, ye shall grow in length of years, ye shall grow in comeliness, ye shall grow in happiness, ye shall grow in wealth, ye shall grow in power.

And what is the meaning of length of years to a brother?

Herein that a brother practises the Four Roads to Iddhi, to wit: action, effort, and concentration applied to desire, to energy, to [the whole] consciousness, and to investigation.

From practising and developing these Four Roads, he may, if he so desire, live on for an aeon, or the remainder of an aeon.

This is the meaning of length of years to a brother.

And what is the meaning of comeliness to a brother?

Herein, that a brother live in the practice of right conduct, restrained according to the Rules of the Order, perfect in behaviour and habitude; he sees danger in the least of the things he should avoid and, taking the precepts on himself, he trains himself therein.

This is comeliness for a brother.

And what is the meaning of happiness for a brother?

Herein, that a brother estranged from lusts, aloof from evil dispositions, enters into and remains in the First Jhāna—a state of zest and ease born of detachment, application and persistence of attention going on the while.

Then suppressing all application and persistence of attention, he enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna, a state of zest and ease, born of the serenity of concentration, wherein the mind is lifted up alone, and the heart grows calm within.

And into the Third Jhāna he enters and abides … and into the Fourth.

This is happiness for a brother.

And what is the meaning of wealth for a brother?

Herein that a brother abides letting his mind fraught with love pervade one quarter of the world, and so too the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, and altogether does he continue to pervade with love-burdened thought, abounding, sublime, and beyond measure, free from hatred and ill will.

And he lets his mind fraught with pity pervade one quarter of the world, and so too the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, and altogether does he continue to pervade with pity-burdened thought, abounding, sublime, and beyond measure, free from hatred and ill will.

And he lets his mind fraught with sympathy pervade one quarter of the world, and so too the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, and altogether does he continue to pervade with sympathy-burdened thought, abounding, sublime, and beyond measure, free from hatred and ill will.

And he lets his mind fraught with equanimity pervade one quarter of the world, and so too the second quarter, and so the third, and so the fourth.

And thus the whole wide world, above, below, around, and everywhere, and altogether does he continue to pervade with equanimity-burdened thought, abounding, sublime, and beyond measure, free from hatred and ill will.

This is wealth for a brother.

And what is the meaning of power for a brother?

Herein, that a brother, by destruction of the deadly taints, enters into and abides in that untainted emancipation of mind and of insight, which he by himself has both known and realized.

This is power for a brother.

I consider no power, brethren, so hard to subdue as the power of Māra.

But this merit [the merit of these four groups of ethical concepts, beginning at Right Conduct, and culminating in Arahantship]” expands, brethren, by the taking up into oneself of that which is good.

Thus spake the Exalted One.

Glad at heart the brethren rejoiced at the words of the Exalted One.

Here ends the Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda-Suttanta