Long Discourses

Great Chapter

22. The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness

Summary

Thus I heard: at one time the Gracious One was dwelling amongst the Kurus near a market town of the Kurus named Kammāssadamma.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks (saying): “Monks!” “Venerable Sir!” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

“This is a one-way path, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the extinction of pain and sorrow, for attaining the right way, for the direct realisation of Nibbāna, that is to say, the four ways of attending to mindfulness.

Which four?

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

The Summary is Finished

Contemplation of the Body

The Section about In-breathing and Out-breathing

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body?

Here, monks, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or has gone to the root of a tree, or has gone to an empty place, sits down. After folding his legs crosswise, setting his body straight, and establishing mindfulness at the front, being very mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

While breathing in long, he knows “I am breathing in long”, or, while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”; or, while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”, or, while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”.

Experiencing the whole body I will breathe in, like this he trains, experiencing the whole body I will breathe out, like this he trains; calming the bodily process I will breathe in, like this he trains, calming the bodily process I will breathe out, like this he trains.

Just as, monks, a clever turner or turner’s apprentice while making a long turn knows “I am making a long turn”, or, while making a short turn knows “I am making a short turn”, just so, monks, a monk while breathing in long, knows “I am breathing in long”, or, while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”; or, while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”, or, while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”.

Experiencing the whole body I will breathe in, like this he trains, experiencing the whole body I will breathe out, like this he trains; calming the bodily process I will breathe in, like this he trains, calming the bodily process I will breathe out, like this he trains.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about In-breathing and Out-breathing is Finished

The Section about the Postures

Moreover, monks, a monk while going knows “I go”; or, standing he knows “I am standing”; or, sitting he knows “I am sitting”; or, while lying down he knows “I am lying down”; or, in whatever way his body is disposed, he knows it is (disposed) in that way.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about the Postures is Finished

The Section about Full Awareness

Moreover, monks, a monk in going forwards, in going back, is one who practises with full awareness; in looking ahead, or in looking around, he is one who practises with full awareness; in bending or in stretching, he is one who practises with full awareness; in bearing his double-robe, bowl, and (other) robes, he is one who practises with full awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, he is one who practises with full awareness; in passing stool and urine, he is one who practises with full awareness; in going, in standing, in sitting; in sleeping, in waking; in talking, and in maintaining silence, he is one who practises with full awareness.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Full Awareness is Finished

The Section about Applying the Mind to Repulsiveness

Moreover, monks, a monk in regard to this very body—from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin, ; and full of manifold impurities—reflects (thus):

“There are in this body:

hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”

Just as though, monks, there were a bag open at both ends, full of various kinds of grain, such as: hill rice, white rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, chickpeas; and a man with good vision having opened it were to reflect (thus): “This is hill rice, this is white rice, these are mung beans, these are sesame seeds, these are chickpeas”; even so, monks, a monk in regard to this very body—from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin, ; and full of manifold impurities—reflects (thus):

“There are in this body,

hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Applying the Mind to Repulsiveness is Finished

The Section about Applying the Mind to the Elements

Moreover, monks, a monk, in regard to this very body, however placed, however disposed, reflects by way of the elements:

“There are in this body, the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the wind element.”

Just as though, monks, a clever butcher, or a butcher’s apprentice, after slaughtering a cow, were sitting down at a crossroads after dividing it into portions; even so, monks, a monk in regard to this very body, however placed, however disposed, reflects by way of the elements:

“There are in this body, the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the wind element.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Applying the Mind to the Elements is Finished

The Section about the Nine Charnel Grounds

The First Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, dead for one day, or dead for two days, or dead for three days, bloated, discoloured, having become quite rotten . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking): “This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The First Charnel Ground)

The Second Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, or being eaten by hawks, or being eaten by vultures, ; or being eaten by dogs, or being eaten by jackals, or being eaten by various kinds of worms . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Second Charnel Ground)

The Third Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, with flesh and blood, bound together by tendons . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking): “This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Third Charnel Ground)

The Fourth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, without flesh, smeared with blood, bound together by tendons . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Fourth Charnel Ground)

The Fifth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, no longer having flesh and blood, bound together by tendons . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Fifth Charnel Ground)

The Sixth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, with bones no longer bound together, scattered in all directions, with a hand-bone here, with a foot-bone there, with a knee-bone here, with a thigh-bone there, with a hip-bone here, with a bone of the back there, with the skull here . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Sixth Charnel Ground)

The Seventh Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, having white bones, like the colour of a conch . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Seventh Charnel Ground)

The Eighth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a heap of bones more than a year old . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Eighth Charnel Ground)

The Ninth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, rotten bones that have become like powder . He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Ninth Charnel Ground)

The Fourteen Contemplations of the Body are Finished

Contemplation of Feelings

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings?

Here, monks, a monk when experiencing a pleasant feeling ; knows “I experience a pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing an unpleasant feeling ; he knows “I experience an unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”.

Or, when experiencing a sensual pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a spiritual pleasant feeling ; he knows “I experience a spiritual pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a sensual unpleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a s piritual unpleasant feeling ; he knows “I experience a spiritual unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a s ensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience an spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the feelings, or else mindfulness that “there are feelings” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings.

Contemplation of Feelings is Finished

Contemplation of the Mind

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind?

Here, monks, a monk when a mind has passion knows “the mind has passion”, or when a mind is without passion he knows “the mind is without passion”; or when a mind has hate he knows “the mind has hate”, or when a mind is without hate he knows “the mind is without hate”; or when a mind has delusion he knows “the mind has delusion”, or when a mind is without delusion he knows “the mind is without delusion”; or when a mind is collected he knows “the mind is collected”, or when a mind is scattered he knows “the mind is scattered”; or when a mind has become very great he knows “the mind has become very great”, or when a mind has not become very great he knows “the mind has not become very great”; or when a mind is surpassable he knows “the mind is surpassable”, or when a mind is unsurpassable he knows “the mind is unsurpassable”; or when a mind is concentrated he knows “the mind is concentrated”, or when a mind is not concentrated he knows “the mind is not concentrated”; or when a mind is liberated he knows “the mind is liberated”, or when a mind is not liberated he knows “the mind is not liberated”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the mind, or else mindfulness that “there is a mind” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the (the nature of) the mind in the mind.

Contemplation of the Mind is Finished

Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things

The Section about the Hindrances

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things? Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ; in the five hindrances.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five hindrances?

Here, monks, a monk having sensual desire in himself knows “there is sensual desire in myself”; or, not having sensual desire in himself he knows “there is no sensual desire in myself”. How there is an arising of sensual desire that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sensual desire that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sensual desire again in the future—that also he knows.

Having ill-will in himself he knows “there is ill-will in myself”; or, not having ill-will in himself he knows “there is no ill-will in myself”. How there is an arising of ill-will that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of ill-will that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned ill-will again in the future—that also he knows.

Having sloth and torpor in himself he knows “there is sloth and torpor in myself”; or, not having sloth and torpor in himself he knows “there is no sloth and torpor in myself”. How there is an arising of sloth and torpor that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sloth and torpor that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sloth and torpor again in the future—that also he knows.

Having agitation and worry in himself he knows “there is agitation and worry in myself”; or, not having agitation and worry in himself he knows “there is no agitation and worry in myself”. How there is an arising of agitation and worry that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of agitation and worry that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned agitation and worry again in the future—that also he knows.

Having doubt in himself he knows “there is doubt in myself”; or, not having doubt in himself he knows “there is no doubt in myself”. How there is an arising of doubt that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of doubt that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned doubt again in the future—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five hindrances.

The Section about the Hindrances is Finished

The Section on the Constituents (of Mind & Matter)

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment?

Here, monks, a monk (knows): “such is form , such is the origination of form, such is the passing away of form; such is feeling , such is the origination of feeling, such is the passing away of feeling; such is perception , such is the origination of perception, such is the passing away of perception; such are (mental) processes , such is the origination of (mental) processes, such is the passing away of (mental) processes; such is consciousness , such is the origination of consciousness, such is the passing away of consciousness”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment.

The Section on the Constituents is Finished

The Section on the Sense-Spheres

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres?

Here, monks, a monk knows the eye , and he knows forms ; and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the ear , and he knows sounds , and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the nose , and he knows smells , and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the tongue , and he knows tastes , and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the body , and he knows tangibles , and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the mind , and he knows thoughts , and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres.

The Section on the Sense-Spheres is Finished

The Section about the Factors of Awakening

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ; in the seven factors of Awakening.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the seven factors of Awakening?

Here, monks, a monk having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself ; knows “there is the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—; that also he knows.

Having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen (until) it comes to fulfilment—that also he knows.

Having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Joy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—; that also he knows.

Having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the seven Factors of Awakening.

The Section about the Factors of Awakening is Finished

The Section about the Four Truths

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths?

Here, monks, a monk knows as it really is “this is Suffering ”, he knows as it really is “this is the Origination of Suffering ”, he knows as it really is “this is the Cessation of Suffering ”, he knows as it really is “this is the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering ”.

The Truth of Suffering

Now what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Birth is suffering also old age is suffering also death is suffering also grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, is suffering also being joined to what is not liked is suffering, also being parted from what is liked is suffering, also not to obtain that which one longs for is suffering in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

Now what, monks, is birth?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings (there is) birth, being born, appearing, turning up; the manifestation of the constituents (of mind and body), the acquisition of the sense spheres: this, monks, is called birth.

Now what, monks, is old age?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings there is old age, agedness, broken teeth, greying hair, and wrinkled skin; the dwindling away of the life span, the decay of the sense faculties: this, monks, is called old age.

Now what, monks, is death?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings there is a fall, a falling away, a breaking up, a disappearance, a dying, a death, a making of time; the break up of the constituents (of mind and body), the throwing off of the body; the cutting off of the life faculty: this, monks, is called death.

Now what, monks, is grief?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there is grief, grieving, the state of grieving, inner grief, great inner grief: this, monks, is called grief.

Now what, monks, is lamentation?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there are laments, great laments, lamenting, great lamenting, the state of lamenting, the state of great lamentation: this, monks, is called lamentation.

Now what, monks, is pain?

That, monks, which is bodily pain, bodily disagreeableness, pain born of contact with the body, disagreeable feeling: this, monks, is called pain.

Now what, monks, is sorrow?

That, monks, which is mental pain, mental disagreeableness, pain born of contact with the mind, disagreeable feeling: this, monks, is called sorrow.

Now what, monks, is despair?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there is desponding, despairing, the state of despondency, the state of despair: this, monks, is called despair.

And what, monks, is the suffering from being joined to what is not liked?

Here, for that one who has unwanted, unlovely, unpleasant forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts; or, for that one who has those who do not desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security—(and then) having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them: this, monks, is called the suffering from being joined to what is not liked.

And what, monks, is the suffering from being parted from what is liked?

Here, for that one who has wanted, lovely, pleasant forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts; or, for that one who has those who do desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security—mothers, or fathers, or brothers, or sisters, or friends, or companions, or blood relatives—(and then) not having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them: this, monks, is called the suffering from being parted from what is liked.

Now what, monks, is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for?

To those beings subject to birth, monks, a longing like this arises: “Oh, might we not be subject to birth, may birth not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to old age, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to old age, may old age not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to sickness, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to sickness, may sickness not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for. To those beings subject to death, monks, a longing like this arises: “Oh, might we not be subject to death, may death not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, ; monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, may grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

Now what, monks, in brief, are the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering?

They are as follows:

the form constituent that is fuel for attachment

the feelings constituent that is fuel for attachment

the perceptions constituent that is fuel for attachment

the (mental) processes constituent that is fuel for attachment

the consciousness constituent that is fuel for attachment .

These, monks, are called, in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.

The Truth of Origination

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Origination of Suffering?

It is that craving which leads to the continuation of existence, which is connected with enjoyment and passion, greatly enjoying this and that, as follows:

craving in regard to sense pleasures

craving in regard to the continuation of existence

craving in regard to the discontinuation of existence .

Now where, monks, does that craving when it is arising arise? When settling where does it settle?

In the world there is that which is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

And in the world what is likeable and pleasing?

In the world the eye is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the ear is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the nose is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the tongue is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the body is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the mind is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world forms are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world sounds are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world smells are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tastes are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tangibles are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thoughts are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world eye-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world ear-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world nose-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tongue-consciousnes s is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world body-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world mind-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world feeling born of eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world perception of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world intention in regard to forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world craving for forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world thinking about forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world an examination of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Origination of Suffering.

The Truth of Cessation

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering?

It is the complete fading away and cessation without remainder of that craving—liberation, letting go, release, and non-adherence.

Now where, monks, is that craving when it is being abandoned (actually) abandoned? When ceasing where does it cease?

In the world there is that which is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

And in the world what is likeable and pleasing?

In the world the eye is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the ear is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the nose is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the tongue is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the body is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In this world the mind is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In this world forms are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In this world sounds are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world smells are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tastes are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tangibles are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thoughts are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world eye-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world ear-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world nose-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tongue-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world body-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world mind-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world nose-contac t is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world feeling born of eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world perception of form s is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world intention in regard to forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world craving for forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world thinking about forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world an examination of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of thought s is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

The Truth of the Path

Now what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering?

It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood right endeavour, right mindfulness, right concentration.

Now what, monks, is right view?

That, monks, which is knowledge about suffering knowledge about the origination of suffering knowledge about the cessation of suffering knowledge about the practice leading to the cessation of suffering.

This, monks, is called right view.

Now what, monks, is right thought?

The thought of renunciation, the thought of good-will, the thought of non-violence.

This, monks, is called right thought.

Now what, monks, is right speech?

Refraining from false speech refraining from malicious speech refraining from rough speech refraining from frivolous talk.

This, monks, is called right speech.

Now what, monks, is right action?

Refraining from killing living creatures refraining from taking what has not been given refraining from sexual misconduct.

This, monks, is called right action.

Now what, monks, is right livelihood?

Here, monks, a noble disciple, having abandoned a wrong way of livelihood, makes his living by a right way of livelihood.

This, monks, is called right livelihood.

Now what, monks, is right endeavour?

Here, monks, a monk regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen generates desire for their non-arising, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

Regarding bad and unwholesome things that have already arisen he generates desire for their abandonment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

He generates desire for the arising of wholesome things that have not yet arisen, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

Regarding wholesome things that have arisen he generates desire for their endurance, persistence, multiplication, extension, development, and fulfilment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

This, monks, is called right endeavour.

Now what, monks, is right mindfulness?

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

This, monks, is called right mindfulness.

Now what, monks, is right concentration?

Here, monks, a monk, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unwholesome things, having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and joy born of seclusion, dwells having attained the first absorption.

With the calming down of thinking and reflection, with internal clarity, and one-pointedness of mind, being without thinking, without reflection, having the happiness and joy born of concentration, he dwells having attained the second absorption.

With the fading away of joy he dwells equanimous, mindful, fully aware, experiencing happiness through the body, about which the Noble Ones declare: “He dwells pleasantly, mindful, and equanimous,” he dwells having attained the third absorption.

Having abandoned pleasure, abandoned pain, and with the previous passing away of mental happiness and sorrow, without pain, without pleasure, and with complete purity of mindfulness owing to equanimity, he dwells having attained the fourth absorption.

This, monks, is called right concentration.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths.

The Section about the Four Truths is Finished

Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things is Finished

The Advantages of Developing the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness

Whoever, monks, should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven years , for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for six years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone six years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for five years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone five years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for four years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone four years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for three years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone three years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for two years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone two years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for one year for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone one year, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for six months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone six months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for five months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone five months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for four months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone four months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for three months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone three months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for two months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone two months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for one month for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone a month, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for half a month for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone half a month, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven days for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

This is a one-way path, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the extinction of pain and sorrow, for attaining the right way, for the direct realisation of Nibbāna, that is to say, the four ways of attending to mindfulness. Thus, whatever was said, it is for this reason it was said.”

The Gracious One said this, and those monks were uplifted and greatly rejoiced in what was said by the Gracious One.

The Advantages of Developing the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness is Finished

The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness is Finished